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By filling out and electronically signing this form you understand that supply of this material by the Library does NOT confer the right to reproduce or publish outside of what is agreed on the form or with the rights holder. Statistics underline that higher education graduates face lower chances of unemployment than non-degree holders. Furthermore, against a backdrop of rapid technological progress, higher edu- cation has an increasingly vital role to play in anticipating and imparting skills required for development.
With this expansion and enlarged mis- sion come a host of sizeable obstacles. In all regions, gross enrolment ratios the number of students enrolled divided by the total population of this age group have risen steadily over the past ten years, but the gap between more and less developed regions has not diminished.
Over 2, decision- makers, including ministers in charge of education, experts, teachers, students and business representatives will gather in the aim of mapping out the fundamental principles of a far-reaching reform of higher education worldwide. A series of regional meetings Havana, Dakar, Tokyo, Palermo and Beirut were held over the past two years, producing regional Declarations and Plans of Actions outlining policy priorities and strategies.
Speaking to the crowds, Ivan Melnikov, the Communist chairman of the State Duma education and science com- mittee, stated that the Russian government had failed to keep its promises and spend money earmarked under a law. Seven years after the collapse of the Soviet Union robbed higher education insti- tutions of the historically strong support of the regime, the sharp decline in living stan- dards, resourcing levels and wages has sap- ped the morale of many and fuelled an alar- ming brain drain.
Higher education institutions are expected to find cash for other bills on their own, through renting out premises or other economic activities. Statistics on the depth of the crisis make for sobering reading: the number of research scientists working in Russia has dropped by half over the last five years and more than a million left the country, according to Minis- try of Science and Technology figures.
Few bright young science graduates go on to do research work and the average age of resear- chers is between 50 and 55 years old — per- ilously close to the average Russian male lifespan of Yet, in the face of the odds, the faith of Russians in higher education is remarkable. Universities are adapting to changing demands, offering a wide number of new market-sensitive courses and specializations, chiefly in the humanities, economics and law.
Innovative moves Regional universities also report high levels of enrolments, mainly as a result of the now-prohibitive costs to students who tra- ditionally have to travel to top institutions like Moscow State University and St Petersburg State to sit formal entrance exams. Many provincial universities have set up compacts with local secondary schools to ensure a flow of bright candidates to their faculties, and some elite institutions have outreach programmes that send exam panels to the provinces to increase the chances of stu- dents from these areas of getting in.
Rectors at the top universities are having to become multi-skilled managers to keep on top of changes that, like in the west, have vested them with institutions needing to be run more like large companies than genteel departments of an ivory tower.
Scho- larships and funds for specific projects were introduced, and a cost-benefit analysis applied in order to measure the efficiency of the system, in terms of the public cost per student. Meanwhile, the number of students tripled from , in to , in and , in The decline in public expenditure and the simultaneous explosion in enrolments in universities could only coexist through the development of private institutions of higher learning.
Since , over half of higher education students were enrolled in new institutions created with support from the reforms: universities, professional insti- tutes, and technical training centres. These Chile: the neo-liberal turn 6 September - No. Cross-fertilization of ideas and ties between scientific institutes and teaching faculties is maintained by linking researchers and lec- turers through joint management offices.
The deputy dean of most university faculties is usually the director of the relevant research institute, facilitating the transfer of the latest developments. Over 1, new jobs have been created in the last four year and academic staff who might have otherwise left to pursue unrelated money-earning opportunities in the private sector have stayed.
The future remains challenging, but not impossible. The Ministry of Education is pushing a pro- gramme of institutional mergers, efficiency measures and retraining to enable higher education managers to make better use of their resources. Such changes are not without stirring controversy: devolving par- tial financial responsibility to regional autho- rities has alarmed some within the academic community, who trust regional governments even less than the central one.
Nick Holdsworth Moscow Brothers-in-arms: scientists and coal miners share grievances during demonstrations in Moscow last May. They tend to offer curricula that are adapted to market needs, although it should be noted that they do not have a repu- tation for being of higher quality than tradi- tional universities, which continue to enjoy high prestige.
Prior to the reforms, higher education being heavily sub- sidized by the State, entrance fees were low. This policy was eliminated in favour of single, across-the-board fees and a financial aid sys- tem set up for students who could not afford them. This type of assistance does not apply to the private sector, in which students can apply for small grants.
Encouraging competition Overall, the objectives of the Chilean reform have been reached. But on the other hand, it is widening the gaps between them, since funding always goes to the strongest schools — precisely those that need it least. Scholar- ships and student aid have produced some constructive results. Meanwhile, the creation of these new alternatives has bolstered spending efficiency at traditional universities. They are now able to equip themselves with improved infra- structures and increase potential enrolment without any repercussions on their expen- ditures.
Was there a need for the reform? Chile did not actually go through a reform of higher education but of a restructuring imposed by the military government. At no point were university staff and students involved in the process. As a result, it was not born out of a vision of where the university should be headed. First, it succeeded in cutting off the University of Chile in Santiago from its regional antennae by creating small universities in the provinces.
It went on to set up a system by which rectors were directly appointed by the president of the republic, who at the time was Augusto Pinochet. What was the most significant impact of the restructuring? Since , everyone had to pay the same dues: if they wanted to study, the least privileged — to which I belonged at the time — were obliged to take out long-term bank loans.
We ran into debt ourselves and many of us are continuing, nearly 20 years later, to reimburse these loans. What effect did state cutbacks to higher education have? Universities had to seek out funding from industry to survive. State funding is calculated according to the number of students enrolled and their caliber.
Many private universities were born Of course, the number of universities exploded, especially private institutions: in , Chile counted 10 universities, a figure that has jumped to In itself, this is a good thing because students have more choice. Furthermore, the country is turning out an increasing number of graduates for the services sector: secretaries, business and accountants, advertising executives and less and less scientists, researchers, doctors and environmental specialists.
Yet, in a field project undertaken by the University of Nairobi and UNESCO four years ago they did so, breaking new ground in terms of inter- disciplinary studies and showing that the university can be used to serve the commu- nity and government. With a small stipend, they had to make their own way to the village they had been assigned to, deal with different languages, and prepare themselves for spot checking during the week to make sure they were doing the work set out.
They also had to note such things as attendance rates, the availability of water, latrines, textbooks and blackboards. For many of the com- munities involved, it was the first time any university educated people had shown inter- est in their problems. The survey results provided the Kenyan Ministry of Education with a new, more holistic set of figures.
Two male masters students in the pro- gramme this year, — researching women in politics and the socialization of young girls, tee- nage pregnancies and the role of universities in promoting safe sex — have made a point of participating in domestic duties during their field studies. Professor Bahemuka says this has already made a difference in one community. Personally, I am surprised that within such a short period, we can see new pat- terns emerging where a few students make a big difference.
He set out to study the alternative economic activities of Somali pastoralists who have been forced to give up livestock in the face of drought, disease, cattle raf- fling and warfare. They expressed disbelief and wondered what I was doing in such a dry, insecure place. But eventually I won their confidence. At first, I thought there was no hope in this place, but then I learnt that actually these people have a lot of energy: they run shops, sell clothes and are open to ideas.
The gum fetches good prices on the international market but the pastoralists have been miss- ing out on profits because traders have been able to exploit the situation. While the Chair aims to create a relay between the university and communities, it is up to the government to provide support by tapping these local talents rather than calling on outside experts.
Of all its transformations, the most radical has taken place over the last decade. De Montfort became a university along with other poly- technics in Britain in A new board of governors, dominated by industrialists, set about developping a flexible approach to learning, capitalizing on existing links to industry and the community.
In terms of the modern uni- versity model, De Montfort has pushed back a number of barriers. The system awards students who are unable to tackle a full degree programme of 24 modules with intermediate diplomas. You can- not just stand still in the way you deliver education. We manage learning where and how our customers want it. Mature students are encouraged. Just as DMU is loosely based on the Ame- rican model of a multi-site regional univer- sity, so it is expanding its activities into the private sector with a number of business ventures.
The structure offers start-up accommodation for businesses and offers local companies the benefit of university research on business improvement tech- niques. The De Montfort example shows higher, continuing and vocational education can exist under one roof to ensure at once wider access for the community and a wider mar- ket for itself.
It shows how an institute can transform itself in relatively little time to meet community demands. The Tower of Babel, as envisioned by G. The enterprise failed and the people were dispersed over the face of the earth. For a lan- guage is, above all, the medium of a culture. Just as a muscle not used eventually withers. The Saami people, for example, hold onto their cultural and linguistic identity despite being spread out over Norway, Sweden and Finland. It is the language that forges the bond.
Culture and language form an insepa- rable couple. So long as a culture is robust, the language persists. When a language is in danger, so too is the culture. Dangers lurk on all sides. A language spoken by a minority is eventually ousted from official Like all living organisms, languagesfollow a life cycle. They are borninto the world, develop or flag. They have their periods of expan-sion and decadence. They subdue others or are subdued.
This is no doubt why, out of the 6, or so languages cur- rently spoken in the world, a dozen disappear each year. For want of speak- ers, because of a war, a region becoming depo- pulated, or another language taking over — there are all kinds of reasons. But the consequences are devastating: whe- never a lan- guage disap- pears without a trace, a part of the 10 September - No. The danger: to erode cultural pluralism and linguistic diversity, and hence, the chance of understanding the other.
Such a process occurs when a nation with economic, political and military might imposes its language as the general medium of communication. In antiquity, the arrival of Latin on the scene brought about the demise of Gaulish. In the Middle Ages, Francien of the Ile-de-France region , which was spoken by royalty, extended with the spread of royal power and in the end got the better of Occitan, Frankish and Alemannic despite originally being less widely spoken than those regional languages.
French was often imposed on colonized peoples and American English is now the dominant lan- guage in international relations, particularly in science. No matter how well people of non-English mother tongue may speak English, they will never master it like those who have assimi- lated its innermost structures from child- hood.
For that reason, they will always be second-class intellectuals in relation to native English-speakers. Dia- logue goes on as long as the talking goes on. Defending linguistic diversity and promoting the lan- guages of minority communities therefore means giving peace another chance. This issue is more than topical: the decision taken by authorities in Algeria to make Ara- bic the only official language provoked vivid reactions, especially in the Berber region, where the culture and the language have a strong hold.
So what can be done to halt the disap- pearance of an intangible heritage that has survived so many years and centuries? Fortunately, the death of a language is not always irreversible. Komi, for instance, which is spoken in the Urals, has managed to revive in recent years. In the press and on television, not to mention in libraries, the cinema, through literature and in schools, everyone has taken up Komi. But it has not been easy. Reviving languages In the Komi region, families had aban- doned their language, partly because a great many Russians had settled there to work in the oilfields.
With no alphabet of its own, Andian is not yet taught in schools but it already possesses an oral literature. What sometimes happens is that a lan- guage is no longer of interest to the young because it does not give them access to a career or job, thus holding out no prospects for the future. So they turn to the language generally used by a majority, even if it is not their own. As a result, some languages are only spoken by old people. They were transmitted orally and just died out with the old folk, not leaving a single You cannot be at peace with yourself or with others if you are forbidden to ex- press yourself in the terms of your own culture.
Reviving a language often means reconciling a people with its traditions. In Europe, Frankish could suffer the same fate in countries other than Luxem- bourg, where it is an official language. Lan- guage is really in mortal danger when those who speak it are ashamed to do so in public.
By facilitating access to the learning of languages, it can support cul- tures, anticipate and perhaps even prevent many future conflicts. A language policy of this kind promotes cultural identi- ties, protects the universal heritage, encou- rages multilingual education and helps to spread the concept of tolerance. The project also works in close cooperation with the Moscow-based Lin- guauni university network, which was res- ponsible for the publication of the Red Book of Rare Languages, in Russian by the Rus- sian Academy of Natural Sciences.
The book describes about thirty languages in the region that are in danger of dying out. Linguapax has also organized seminars in Latin America, Asia and Europe, and will hold one in Bur- kina Faso in December on the linguistic heri- tage, the teaching of languages teacher trai- ning and teaching methods , and the safeguarding of linguistic rights.
In this connection, the International PEN Club in Barcelona — an NGO bringing together wri- ters from all over the world — asked for sup- port from Linguapax to draw up a declara- tion on linguistic rights, since there is no widely applicable international agreement to protect languages in the framework of the United Nations. To restore to you the name of each and every thing.
These textbooks give children a posi- tive image of their language and encourage them to learn others. In addition, Cambodia has set up an Institute for Cambodian Lan- guages, where the country's 18 minority languages can be studied. A reader in Khmer: reviving the desire to know, to understand and to act.
To remedy this situation, the government opted for a major educational reform. A team of teachers and linguists were selected to implement a new learning pro- gramme throughout the country. In addi- tion, they were culturally alienating because they inculcated foreign values in a foreign language, French.
Controversial choices From the outset, the choice of which lan- guages would be used in the classroom was controversial since Burkina Faso counts almost 60 of them. None- theless, all citizens of Burkina Faso speak at least one of these three languages.
Many observers won- dered if the Burkinabe state had the material and financial means for equipping the schools so that the programme could truly get off the ground and be effective. While there were those who doubted, others had strong faith in the reform.
One day, the fire of cul- tural allegiances through ethnic affinity — thanks to language — will break out among us. This teaching programme must enable us to make the school less alie- nating and adapt it to our national realities. The Burkinabe saw no interest in sending their children to school to learn a language that they already spoke at home. A doctor speaking Fulfulde? No one believed such things were possible! The reform sparked a debate over identity and opportunities for social advancement.
Others were shuffled back into the traditional sys- tem after an exam and an uncounted year of remedial French. Later, another reform was put in place to maintain French as the classroom language, but the various diplomas issued by the French system between primary and the end of high school were eliminated. But three years later, in , this second reform was also abandoned. The current government has reformula- ted the reform philosophy. Classes are still being conducted in local languages, but essentially in rural schools to combat illite- racy among young people and adults from ages 15 to This makes it possible to group students of various grade levels together in a single classroom with only one teacher.
But this too has provoked sharp criticism. The institution that is responsible — the Ministry of Basic Education and Lite- racy — has no small task ahead. Boulaye Lallou in Ouagadougou Colonization and five centuries of cultu-ral and linguistic oppression could have wiped Quechua off the linguistic map alto- gether; however, knowing that it formed the basis of their identity, speakers of the lan- guage were determined to pass it on.
Today, Quechua is stronger than ever, and is the reflection of a living culture which has never given in. It is a language that has quietly but surely asserted itself; the expression of a culture that simply carried on as usual, igno- ring the one that was supposed to have repla- ced it.
In the shadow of the Spanish presence, Quechua gained in strength through the rites and religious practices the Indians had been passing down over the centuries, and is now spoken by some ten million inhabitants of the South American continent. How Quechua came to be spoken in the Andean region — one made up of a mosaic of peoples, cultures and languages — is closely tied up with the history of the domination and expansion of the Inca Empire. When they imposed their reign, the Incas who came from the south of the country , realized that a language originating from the Chinchaysuyo region in the north of the country , was very widely spoken in the region.
The language was called Quechua.
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