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Programas de televisión, realities, series, vídeos, noticias, TV online. Todo el contenido multimedia de nuestros programas de TV, series e informativos. Pues las series clásicas de Telecinco o Antena 3 que has visto en los Podemos ver Camera Café, La que se avecina, Escenas de matrimonio.

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Telecinco series la que se avecina torrent

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This is how to watch Telecinco from anywhere on the globe. “Sin weekly no hay paraíso”, “La que se avecina”, “Aída”, “Tierra de Lobos”. La que se avecina (), as Jorge Crespo In the Feroz Awards, Fresneda was nominated as Best Leading Actor in a Series for The ministry of Time. Una vez presentadas las áreas clave del programa, se presenta una serie de TORRENt (Eds.), Mapping Media Education Policies in the World. MYSTERY METHOD AUDIOBOOK TORRENT In midrange and premium by touch you vast phone locks. PC Tools Belkin is your account VNC clients by a red triangle or the for Windows. For the execute remote.

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Julie is a firm believer in equal rights for everyone. She is a traveler and blogger, focusing her efforts on exposing censorship and discrimination around the world. She wants to hold corrupt governments and shady companies accountable by writing investigative articles and helpful guides. Your email address will not be published.

Post Comment. This guide just made my day!!! Omg yes I agree! And I only had a to get a VPN to watch it, not a bad deal! I so miss watching Got Talent Espana!!! I will surely try to get one of these VPNs. Thank you for the tips. I have browsed some of your articles online. Why they are restricted? Is VPN legal from this perspective? Please let me know. He promotes the transformation of a creative idea through encouragement, resources, challenge, and team spirit -- all of which are elements rooted in management discourse.

In this pre-sales activity, the partnership network woven by the EuropaCorp teams is a key factor for success cf. Buf Compagnie for special effects, and Etranges Libellules to adapt characters from the comic strip to the world of video games. Relationship between EuropaCorp and its main partners for produc- tion and distribution The following graph demonstrates the relationship between EuropaCorp and its main partners for production and distribution.

If a project is not picked up by the TV channels and international distributors, it might be postponed until they accept, usually after the project has under- gone profound transformations, either in casting, screenplay or budget. The remake il- lustrates the value of offering a proven formula to a target audience. They are careful to avoid as much as possible --in comedies for example-- jokes that are too Franco-centric and give more room to visual humor. The contrary? The company has sold 5 of the 15 top grossing 16 10 December Today we presell and shoot later.

Instead of going from a product to the public, we do the reverse. It can no longer be the same ideas, the same images. Indeed, the major American studios belong to integrated multimedia conglomerates which are very present in TV broadcasting and own their own movie studios.

The comparison with Gaumont, a time-honored player in French cinema, shows how quickly EuropaCorp has carved out its own place. Handling the second life of a movie, which begins after it has been broadcast on network TV, is an activity that will reinforce the EuropaCorp model in the long run, when the library has matured and grown. Will it be the same for Luc Besson and his projects?

What can we make of this sudden rebuke from the market? Is it about antici- pating the risk of losses linked to the VOD market, whose growth is less than the irreversible decline of the DVD? Might investors think that any attempt 19 LeMonde. Would they prefer to see a less in- tegrated organization model, with lighter structures based on relations with other companies of the same type and size?

The general business plan, the company image and its reputation rest squarely on these two key men. What is sure is that the road towards limiting the im- pact of their personality will be long, and one can wonder whether they will ever achieve it, given the embodiment of the company by its main founder. These remarks by the former head of Unifrance, the French equivalent of the MPAA, connect in a way with the ambition of EuropaCorp : to build, on the American movie production model, an alternative form of cinema that would compete with it head on.

In Europe. In France. And as for the subject matter of The Messenger: Joan of Arc, he revisits one of the major legends of French history. So that this long confrontation between the US and Europe and the new forms based on the complementarity of mainstream cinema and art-house cinema, might rekindle --today and especially tomorrow-- a desire for every kind of cinema.

M, Handbook of me- dia management, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, M, Les : comment devient-on un grand patron? H, « Do Traits Matter? On the other side, however, applications of several of the constituent parts of market failure theory and the context in which they are being considered need to be empirically tested in the light of some of the unique characteristics of the German pay-TV market.

In fact, the relevance of these particular instances for negatively affecting the optimal functioning of markets remains to be analyzed more deeply. Introduction Germany has historically been a challenging market with low potential for pay-TV. In Germany, pay-TV growth has been inhibited by various factors: Firstly, intense competition from the major public i.

However additionally, digitalisation of TV reception lags far behind other European countries Ofcom b. This holds true for the take-up of digital Pay-TV subscriptions. This can largely be attributed to the collapse of Kirch Group in And thirdly, many regulatory interventions to focus on potential harmful competi- tion impacts may have acted as a brake on a quicker development of Pay-TV in the country. As a result of liberalization, the cable market has established a fragmented vertical structure, as a result of which the major operators do not have a direct billing relationship with their customers, thus hindering innova- tion in the sector through digitization and marketing of differentiated services.

However, the situation looks somewhat better today. In the meantime, telecommunications compa- nies have also started offering their own pay-TV platforms. Despite strong growth, Germany will continue to lag behind other major European markets, with only around half of households digital by the end of Datamonitor This paper goes even further. It argues that pay-TV market evolution may altogether have failed because of a plethora of causes which may dynamically interrelate. Scholars have discussed Pay-TV failure controversially.

Others criticize its allocative ineficiency Minasian , Samuelson , Frank This paper builds on two theory frameworks: Industrial organization IO theory incorporating the SCP-paradigm to systematically analyze the market, and economic welfare analysis to address the nature of market fail- ure. These trends include the rising use of non-linear video, i. VoD and DVR. Finally, online piracy as well as legal downloads of television content, and a continuous growth in DVD sales of programmes originating from TV are eating into television usage in general and the Pay-TV market in particular.

All markets that fail to meet these requirements automatically fall victim to this verdict. We used literature review, study of industry expert and reports of selected case companies as research methods. We used market data from various sources, notably private market and social research agencies in Germany.

Overall, market data availability availability is scarce. In general, case study research is said to be particularlywell-suited to the study of emerging and complex phenomena Yin We considered this to be a valid proposition for the present task. Methodical stress was put on analyses of variables and their discussion for market failure of the indus- try. The paper is organized as follows: First, it decomposes the market structure for digital pay-TV services in Germany.

Then, selected variables of media-related market failure theory will be discussed against empirical evi- dence on the situation in Germany. Finally, we offer concluding remarks on the applicability and shortcomings of selected variables of the chosen theory on the pay-TV sector. Digital Pay-Tv in Germany — The Market Pay-TV is commonly refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods.

It requires the installation of a con- ditional access system to exclude non-payers. At the beginning of , Industry experts consider digitization as prime driver in a changing market environment in Germany. In , it is assumed that 4 out of 5 German TV households will be digitized.

Cable is expected to lose market share to satellite distribution Goldmedia As a rule, such wholesale channel providers do not have direct relationship with end consumers, but sell their channels to retail service providers. The one exception is Premiere, which is in a quadruplicate role: The company operates its own channels, in some cases sells a selection of these channels to retail service providers Unity Media, T- Home , provides retail service for selected third-party channel provid- ers Discovery Channel, RTL passion , and operates as its own retail service provider as well.

The landscape of retail service providers is divided into two groups: Firstly, retail service providers who are an integral part or a wholly-owned subsidiary of wholesale platform service providers Ka- bel Digital Home, Entavio, T-Home ; and secondly, retail service pro- viders which are independent from wholesale platform providers and thus need to purchase their technical services Premiere, Premiere Star, Mobile 3.

Some of these operate their own encryption services, while others rely on the wholesale platform service providers to do so. For the purpose of this study, such subscriptions have been removed from the statistical information. As of late , the linear Pay-TV market in Germany i. Remaining analogue capacities were switched off in early The basic differ- ence between the two different types of Pay-TV is household coverage. With one exception, all offerings by distribution network operators i.

In contrast, almost any cable and satellite user can subscribe to Premiere irrespective of their technical provider. Distribution and consumer access Cable in Germany is divided into regional monopolies. Kabel BW covers Baden-Wurttemberg with 2. The vast majority of these are still tuned to analogue reception. All three companies are owned by private equity, and each has their own Pay-TV package. Although prices and terms vary, they carry basically the same set of special interest channels.

Premiere is not a part of these packages, but customers may order it separately. Altogether, an estimated Further 2. The programmes offered are essentially the same as in regional cable and do not include Premiere. The choice of programmes is the same as in cable. However, Deutsche Telekom is the only one in this group also carrying.

Again, only physically connected households can subscribe. Total subscription numbers have now reached about On satellite, SES Astra is the only relevant direct-to-home provider; their sole competitor Eutelsat serves exclusively small local cable networks not connected to the three major operators. Out of the Indeed, Astra is the largest digital television platform in Germany and primarily carries Free-TV, but Premiere as well.

Oddly enough, it belongs to cabler Unity Media and transmits the soccer premier league non-exclusively in parallel with Pre- miere and a selection of special interest channels. Entavio so far only carries the regular Premiere package, which is available directly from Premiere anyway, but aspires to aggregate more programmes. Arena has about Only Arena and Eutelsat use different systems, i.

Cryptoworks and Conax respectively. The major cablers and Premiere are now switching over to News Corp. This means that in cable, the same set-top boxes can be utilised nation- wide and with any provider. This has not been the case with analogue TV, where every station was able to use its own transmission or uplink resources in order to broad- cast an unchanged signal through any distribution channel.

Such play-out and uplink facilities are operated by each of the three major cable providers, plus SES Astra, Eutelsat, and Premiere. Regulation Regulation plays a major role in the development of the German Pay- TV market, both from a media pluralism and a competition point-of-view. Authorities have been insistent that vertical integration between television programme providers channels , programme packagers and distribution networks must be prevented except where natural monopolies are in place.

This means that cable operators, who always have regional exclusivity, are permitted to offer Pay-TV bundles to their customers. However, the tenet of net neutrality would oblige them to carry third-party platforms as well. Satellite-based and terrestrial services, on the other hand, are gen- erally required to let independent platforms aggregate Pay channels and establish customer relationships, with the network operators only working as technical distributors.

Companies such as Mobile 3. In our context, focus is on programme produc- tion, channel packaging, transmission to the viewer, and revenue gen- eration practices of the pay-TV players. Digital Pay-TV as club good thus incurs welfare losses. This is also due to its property of non-rivalry in consumption. When sellers set prices higher than zero, as in the case of pay-TV, dead weight loss will follow in the form of consumer surplus lost Tegge Most are available via selected distributors, i.

Pre- miere must be considered as the quasi-monopolist in the pay-TV market in Germany. Firms can only succeed if they offer the entire choice of Free- and Pay-TV at a low price. Prerequisite for commercial success is vertical integration with content and produc- tion providers or Free-TV channels in order to ensure access to cheap previously amortised programme content. Category 3: Since cable providers have always regional monopolies, they do not compete directly with each other; however, there is some competitive over- lap regarding the conditions of the deals with wholesale channel providers: As soon as one cable provider offers a very good or very bad deal, this will automatically affect the negotiating position of the other cablers.

However, in cities, satel- lite reception may be impossible because dishes can not be installed buildings shadowing the signal or building regulations or cable is in- cluded in the utilities bill and customer premises are by default equipped with cable installations. Therefore, wherever it is available, cable has a competitive advantage over satellites, and — because of regional cable monopolies — there is no choice between different cable companies.

But only cities and agglomeration areas have cable; in rural regions, satellite services by the sole relevant DTH provider Astra However, IPTV take-up has only just begun and it is still much more expensive than cable; this situation will change in the coming years. IPTV: For the time being, satellite is without competition in rural areas, because there is no cable and never will be, and high- speed DSL infrastructures will not be in place anytime soon. Customers therefore have no choice other than Astra.

Lowering prices was seen as the only way to increase its subscriber base. Offering similar sets of low-level thematic channels, these providers lie in the economy pricing segment. Premiere and Nagravision have entered into a contract for the de- ployment of a pre-paid disposable card. The card will be pre-loaded with viewing rights enabling a time limited access to selected content. The card is fully compatible with the existing base of set top boxes. An initial few hundred thousand cards have already been delivered.

The Blue Movie Card repre- sents a striking example of an innovative new product development enabling a digital TV operator to provide innovative products into its subscriber base. In addition, content differentiation levels are low. On the one hand, Premiere and Arena offer sought-after premium content mov- ies and football and thus provide added value compared with Free-TV.

On the other hand, all other operators offer the same choice of lower-val- ue special-interest channels which duplicate programmes from Free-TV. This is mainly caused by debt resulting from leveraged buyouts. Pay-TV here is a strategy in order to retain customers and to slowly switch to a different business model: from mere transport pro- viders to full-service companies providing access, content, and added value at the same time.

After 17 years of operation, the company still hovers at the brink of losing money in spite of heavy restructuring and cost-cutting over the last few years. Procurement costs on premium content and customer management eat up most of sub- scription revenues. However, the market is far from pure failure.

Firstly, we conclude that digital Pay-TV as club good incurs welfare losses. However, pay-TV does not work on zero-based pricing schemes. And the live coverage of Bundesliga does not have listed event status so as to ar- gue its need to become accessible for everyone on a Free-TV basis Ofcom c.

Secondly, competition and market power are of considerable impor- tance in German pay-TV. It is obvious that Premiere has considerable mar- ket power from content rights and control of key assets in the premium sports and blockbuster movies content segment. This potentially weakens existing competition, raises barriers to entry, and slows down innovation. Vertical in- tegration is applied as strategy: Market power is extended from upstream to downstream to assure a steady and reliable input supply.

We conclude that a quasi-monopolistic market exists for pay-TV subscription channels in these segments, at both the wholesale and retail level of the value chain, and that Premiere has considerable market power in these segments. High barriers to entry into these premium content markets support this view. By contrast, all non-Premiere Pay-TV packages lack distinctive and highly attractive programme content. German consumers face access restrictions according to geographic location.

As far as consumer welfare is concerned, there may be certain types of consum- ers who are not well served by pay-TV in the sense that the pricing structure may serve to exclude them from the market. This implies that pay-TV environments mitigate market failure since it is possible for those viewers to effectively value a programme and pay prices according to willingness-to-pay.

The most effective way of achieving this is via substantial cost cutting, with reductions to programming expenditure being crucial. Cable op- erators consider digital television as an additional way to attract customers to triple-play services, rather than a way to generate revenues on a standalone basis.

Furthermore, telcos and cable providers face large infrastructure in- vestments if they want to become able to offer truly functioning triple play. Especially Deutsche Telekom has pockets deep enough to invest billions, but the cable companies also have plenty of cash at hand. Last but not least, digital pay-TV uptake in Germany is near gridlocked by the fact that each actor — Free-TV incumbents, distributors, platform operators, thematic chan- nels, telcos, CE manufacturers, US major studios, et al.

To the contrary, their efforts to prevent monopolies and vertical integration by virtue of both media and competition laws have contributed to the multi-faceted, confusing condition of the market. The Economic Regulation of Broadcasting Markets. Evolving Technology and Chal- lenges for Policy. Cambridge: University Press, pp.

Digitisation of the German television Market. New York: Wi- ley. Ein Regulierungsproblem? Kommerz — Kommunikation — Konsum. Evolving Technology and Challenges for Policy. Grand Caiman E! Badillo badillo ejcm. Lesourd Jean-Baptiste. Lesourd ejcm. Thus, the market seems much more concentrated, but more diverse in the UK than in France.

The dynamics of media production as related to two salient drivers: technological advances and globalization. Firstly, technological trends lead- ing to economies of scale and scope are crucial in the media sector, with multimedia strategies and the emergence of transnational media conglom- erates. Secondly, deregulation in the neighbouring industries such as the telecom and other high technology industries, and, more generally, the trend towards liberalization of international trade are of great importance for the media industry in global markets.

These economic mechanisms lead to a dynamics of concentration. Concentration in the media industry fuels a somewhat intense de- bate, which is related to the so-called media bias debate. These debates have, therefore, not been completely settled, and, in particular, much remains to do in the actual empirical measurement of the real extent of concentration in the media.

Mathien, Accordingly, this paper aims at a comparison between two somewhat contrasted situations in two coun- tries of similar sizes and with apparently comparable degrees of concentra- tion in the written press, but with different regulatory and political environ- ments: France and the U. Various Media Concentration And Diversity Indexes In relation with the above debates, one should note that various au- thors distinguish between economic concentration as such, and diversity in the products and attitudes of the press and the media.

There are several market concentration indexes available, which are more or less adapted to a quantitative description of the intensity of market power or, for very con- centrated markets, monopoly or oligopoly power in many industries, such as, for instance, the media industry.

In other terms, HHI obeys some pertinent hypotheses regarding the degree of market concentration. Several authors, including Noam , and Hill , have criticised DI as a pertinent diversity index. Let m be the total number of independent media outlets. Under these conditions, Noam proposes an- other index, which we might therefore cal the Noam index NI Noam, , The Cases of the British and French Press A comparison between the present respective situations of the Brit- ish and French press, and the recent concentration phenomena to which they has been submitted is interesting in that it highlights the differences in historical and political backgrounds of the two countries.

Tables 1 and 2 give the detail of calculations of the various concentration and diversity indexes concerning the daily national press in both countries. Thus, we feel that our comparative analysis is based on comparable data. In both cases, this amounts to a mean equivalent number of press groups of the order of magnitude about 4 to 5. On the basis of the CR4 shares of the four largest press groups, the concentration appears to be very high in both coun- tries, with such market shares being, respectively, of However, as far as diversity is concerned, the British daily press appears much more diverse in terms of both the diver- sity indexes DI which are in the case of the UK, and in the case of France and the Noam indexes NI which are in the case of the UK, and in the case of France.

Our research leads to a number of developments. A more detailed analysis of the results, of this comparative study in terms of the differences between the institutional and regulatory environments in both countries would be quite interesting. This could include a comparative theoretical analysis of the underlying phenomena. Finally, our comparative analysis could be ex- tended to a study the dynamic evolution of the media sectors, as related to technological changes in the new information and communication technolo- gies, in both countries, and could also lead to more extensive country com- parisons.

Federal Communications Law Journal, 58, , pp. After the golden age of the press, the French press has entered, almost since the First World War, into a phase of inexorable decline. The traditional business model is squeezed by many phenomena: the fall in the number of readers, the decline in the number of titles, the drop in advertising revenues.

Moreover, costs are very high: the cost of the paper, the production costs and the distribution costs are among the highest in Eu- rope. We will propose a very simple econometric analysis which will show the main tendencies of the French press, in particu- lar by studying the dynamics of the turnover and by distinguishing different market segments. We will observe the data for the period and we will provide forecasts for the year Our simple econometric analysis in fact time trend indicates that, perhaps, we are not so far from the end of an industry?

The French Press: a Protected Sector in a Changing En- vironment The dynamics of the press is impelled by strong structural economic factors: economies of scale and economies of scope The media world is subjected to strong economic constraints which may be considered as main structural factors explaining long tendencies. Consequently, the economic answer consists in increasing the market quantitatively in order to cause a drop in the unit cost of production.

Concentration may be horizontal: for example, some newspapers buy other newspapers; for the years let us quote the purchase of Times Mirror Company by Tribune Company or the purchase of Central Newspapers by Gannett in the United States. Big companies have developed in the mega informa- tion and communication industry at the international level. In general, the large media companies are pres- ent in many activities, among which the press, at the international level.

So we may wonder what will be the place of the French groups in such a changing global environment. Moreover, globalisation is linked to a deregulation process. The process of deregulation of the telecommunications industry in the United States started with the dismantling of ATT in The dis- mantling of ATT constituted a shock wave for the whole world and all the economic sectors.

It was a major event of the history of the XXth century: it corresponds to the beginning of the creation of the mega information and com- munication industry and it was the starting point of the new wave of economic liberalism. Compared to many other industries, and in particular to telecom- munications, the deregulation of the media has been a slow process.

Bruylant, , chapter 6. With regard to France no process of deregulation of the media is engaged. The press is strongly protected by the current rules. Let us quote some fundamental rules. The press faced to the digital change Digitalization, which supports the convergence of the sectors of tele- communications, data processing and audio-visual, causes technological shocks, synonymous with an expansion of the media environment, but also strong contraction in some sectors.

Today newspapers seem an old medium. The concept of new medium refers rather to all that relates to the electronic screen. It is necessary to dismiss the idea according to which convergence would imply less and less forms of communication. Francis Balle , p. In other words, old media do not disappear. They are hybrid and founded on some characteristics of old media.

They add new potentialities related on new technologies and new uses. It remains that some new media are taking an increasingly important place to the detriment of some old media. Many studies show that the question is probably too simple and that it is necessary to take into account different types of readers, especially according to the age, dif- ferent types of information, as well as the emergence of different information suppliers on Internet.

It is necessary to understand the extent of the economic changes in such a technological environment context. Obviously the same logic of free offer has appeared with Internet. But the development of Internet could also paradoxically cause the emergence of new markets where infor- mation would be paid, of course by companies which can afford it.

Digitalisation has an impact on all the media, and in particular on the press. In a mechanical way, with the arrival of new media, the time available for reading is reduced. In addition, it is clear that the press lost its monopoly of information, which becomes increasingly free and available in particular on Internet. Internet creates new uses which are inaccessible to the tradition- al press. In fact the bases of the economic model of the press are in question.

Moreover, Internet and other media absorb more and more advertising rev- enues. Internet is the most dynamic segment of the advertising market. Hutin is the President of Ouest France. In , after hav- ing concluded an agreement with the majority of the heirs of Mr. Such an amount is not a problem for the Dassault group, which does not have any debt.

Since then, Serge Dassault resold various titles from Socpresse. It should also be recalled that the sizes of the French press groups are very far from those of the large American groups or even European groups. To circumvent the effect of the tax producing a newspaper of 24 large pages instead of 96 small size sheets, for example, was enough… According to the same logic, this theory applies to the dynamics of the organization of the markets.

A market appears with an innovation. When an innovation is set up, generally only one innovator has the monopoly, due to his innovation, during a certain time. A kind of normal curve illustrates this dynamics. This evolution seems to apply to the French press. After the golden age of the press in the XIXth century, and at the beginning of the XXth cen- tury, the French press has entered, almost since the First World War, into a phase of inexorable decline. In there was daily newspapers in France, in and only 66 in the year The graph 1 below illus- trates this decline which was fast after the Second World War, then creeping and continual these last decades.

However, not only the number of titles has dropped but there has been also a very important fall of the readership: it should be recalled that in the Petit Parisien was sold to 3 million copies whereas today the num- ber of sold copies of the two main newspapers of the national daily press, Le Monde and Le Figaro, together, comes to three to four times less.

The generalization of the colour television would be the main ex- planation of a new stage in the decline of the press. Econometric Tendencies: Towards the end of an Indus- try? The turnover is about 1,5 billion Euro. It includes nearly titles with approximately 70 daily newspapers, weekly magazines, 30 monthly magazines and 30 quarterly magazines. The turnover exceeds 3 billion Euro. It includes nearly titles with mainly monthly magazines or quarterly ones.

It is the heart of the press magazine. The turnover of this specialized press is higher than 4 billion Euro. This technical press medical, commercial, agricultural… has a turnover higher than 1 billion Euro. Finally in the graphs below the total of the four preceding segments reaches about 10 billion Euro. The forecasts are calculated on the basis of the data. Indeed it is what the tendencies until show, since these tendencies reveal a slightly positive slope.

French press trend in current Euro: does it conirm resistency? But we wish to use this analysis to suggest that there is a strong rupture of trend since the year This rupture is so strong that we can note a very strong decline of all the segments of the French press. We study what occurs if we prolong the seven last years trend. In current Euro the prolongation of the recent tendencies is cata- strophic: advertising becomes null, but a small hope may be found in the resistance of sales.

The new trend: a zoom on the General Information French press in current Euro: the end of advertising? The new trend: a zoom on the General Information French press in constant Euro: advertising becomes negative! In- deed, and in particular with regard to the general information press it ap- pears that since , under the pressure of Internet and of the free press, advertising revenues have dramatically diminished. The new trend shows that advertising revenues could become negligible.

On the other hand sales are keeping up. We can deduce that some daily newspapers or magazines should be able to keep niches. In any case, the French press is faced with huge and accelerating changes. The New Media Monopoly. Boston MA: Beacon Press, Bruxelles: Bruylant, Paris: Montchrestien, , 11th ed. Le Monde, January 22, Rapport au Premier Ministre, Paris, Economie de la presse. Paris: Ellipses, Le Monde, September 27, Rapport au ministre de la culture et de la communication, Paris, Feb- ruary Paris: PUF, Que sais-je, , 6th ed.

Trends in Newsrooms The second annual report from the World Editors Forum, Now broad list of public, professional and consulting organizations are active in the country, like National Council on Corporate Governance, that specializes in promot- ing and improving basic standards of corporate governance.

It was indicative after all that answers to our questionnaire that referred to rather primitive characteristics of corporate governance came from just 5 media companies out of 44 sampled ones. Prevalence of linear-functional and divisional structures of management is more acceptable for developing Rus- sian media market that yet demands more adaptive, reasonably strict and steady constructions and methods that at the same time allow the use the top-management personnel with more diverse skills.

Presidents also as a rule are members of boards of directors. In other words owners either personally administrate or directly control their companies leaving less space for corporate governance evolu- tion. And global institutional and individual players investing in Russian assets both public and private, including those from media sectors, have been getting ROI often so impressive lately that they could afford to blench all present shortcomings in disclosure or boards composition.

Altogeth- er, according to Russian Association of Independent Directors [Vedomosti ], in in public and private corporations in Russia worked not less than independent directors and more than 40 of them were foreigners.

As written above virtually all national media companies even public corporations are controlled by limited numbers of shareholders and therefore many boards can be described more often as decorative than functional or strategic units. In national media industry minority shareholders presented in smaller numbers and their presence in boards of directors, as exposed in the table, even in public corporation never has been more than nothing.

Thus in studied companies with purely Russian capital there is no even one foreign director though in Russia introduction of such members to boards has been regarded as one of the major moves in the evolution of corporate governance. In general in Russia this area of regu- lating and directing inside and outside processes in companies was estab- lished as an important part of management not so long ago, and introduction of vital mechanisms and structural elements has been rather slow.

December 13, RBC Monthly. July, Advertising-funded industries in transition Media industries are undergoing a technology-prompted change led by audiences. And advertising follows audiences. They are not willing to pay for broadcast TV advertising based on interruption.

Dollars go to targeted media and they shrink because the targeted media is more effec- tive. The publishing, broadcasting and advertising scenes are more af- fected than other media and entertainment industries. That is true… so far. But some new media are so disruptive that they force older media to change themselves radically in order to stay in business. The literature has been describing this crisis for a while. Both books claimed that advertising agencies were selling clients short.

Effectiveness is traded by spectacular ads that entertain but fail to sell. Al Ries and Laura Ries argue that the future for brands is in public relations and not in advertising. Zyman warns about spending too much on sponsorship. New marketing techniques, including Internet, video gaming and prod- uct placement are the focus of works by Jaffe and Galician The synergies achieved between entertainment and advertising through product placement are also explained by Donaton while exploring the history of product placement, which is currently one of the most apparent alternatives to traditional advertising.

Advertising-funded media and entertainment industries are in tran- sition Farrell, Technological change breeds cultural change. Today consumers of media are more in control of how, where and when they re- ceive their messages. There will always be some need for live television and radio, to deliver breaking news, as well as sporting events, awards shows and so on, but the drive towards more consumer control will continue.

An equally strong revolution is happening in content-creation. Blogs, cellphone movies and social networking sites are contributing to an explosion of user-generated content. In this context there is an increasing premium for innovation in media. Television is not as dominant as it once was.

A whole world of cable and satellite channels is now available to smart market- ers. One must devote more time to media evaluation and selection, and it can produce more effective advertising. That is exactly what clients are look- ing for —more answers to their marketing problems. Advertisers are indeed exploring many new avenues. Billboard ad- vertising is being used in innovative ways: Out-of-home advertising, long considered a backwater on Madison Ave. As advertisers ind it harder to reach consumers through television and radio, the increasing array of out-of-home ads is looking more attractive.

Word-of-mouth and viral marketing are also mainstreaming. Gladwell ex- plained this pattern in the same year. Brands experiment with the brave new world of the Web 2. Virtual reality outlets like Second Life and the videogame industry seem also ripe for marketers. Mar- keters advertised and disseminated messages and customers were a pas- sive target. Joffe argues that marketers must adapt to the brave new world of the Internet, social networks, user-generated content, blogs and podcasts. It is a world of powerful conversations, were dialogue, par- ticipation and community are paramount and mass collaboration is in place Tapscott and Williams, When marketing is a conversation, market- ers get to know users as persons, not just as faceless and silent members of a demographic segment.

The goal is promoting conversations to talk with consumers not at them and get them talking about products, services and issues. Demand for big real live events remains strong, but this is precisely by a shortage of programs with large ratings. New competitors: the advertising industry meets Silicon Valley The purchases of MySpace by News Corporation and YouTube by Google extended to new scenes the battle for audiences and advertising.

Around the year some brands achieved global stature and dimension without using traditional advertising media. April and May witnessed a new battle between the Internet gi- ants headquartered in the U. As the use of advertising strategies online by advertisers grows, the struggle for controlling the income generated is escalating. Microsoft traditionally did not want to play a role in the advertising business. Its technological culture resisted some previous initiatives in the online advertising space.

The online advertising market walks towards maturity around an oli- gopoly of companies that sell the ads users watch on the Internet. There is a business model based on search, online video downloads or banners in news and entertainment sites. The implications of such movements for the agency business are huge.

Advertisers have traditionally trusted agencies for their media place- ment and accepted their role as intermediaries. Google has started to change those rules placing ads next to online searches presenting an alternative model to advertising agencies.

In the last two years, the largest advertising agencies have increased their interest for the online world. Advertising budgets have migrated from traditional media to the Internet. The rise of online video Online video advertising is turning into a viable alternative for the 30 second spot. Industry insiders believe it gives more depth and visibility to some campaigns, for half the price.

According to them, the website is replacing the 30 as the central expression of a brand. In most cases, rich- video sites can be made for half the cost of a second spot. Marketers are showing increasing sophistication in their use of online video to create not just linear presentations that look like TV commercials, but interactive, virtual experiences. Online advertising takes advantage of an increasing interest for advertising that travels along the Internet as good quality entertainment.

The proliferation of broadband Internet connections make easier for computer users downloading or watching video clips, and that is enabling media companies, agencies and marketers to create Web sites devoted to commercials and other forms of advertising as entertainment or amusement. YouTube has also shown how popular are good commercials on the Internet. That is the reason behind the release of new all advertising websites like veryfunnyads.

People do not seem to be against advertising as such. Online video is still relatively small as an advertising revenue genera- tor. It is true that viewership has exploded. Around Web video has a long way to go before it rivals search marketing, much less the huge numbers achieved by television advertising. Besides, professionally produced programming remains the biggest potential draw for advertising dollars. Social networking: Markets as conversations?

Social networks are another promising venue for advertising as the most relevant social networking sites try to monetize its huge and growing user base. They seem to offer an opportunity: unlike the decline in television viewership or newspaper and magazine readership, online networks enjoy massive increases in participation.

However, Clemons considers that there are still limits to re- placing advertising with social network distribution of promotional messages: on one hand, putting up a social networking Web site does not guarantee loyal viewership. On the other, loyal viewership does not guarantee trust in promotional messages. The Internet is heavily transparent and attempts at manipulation will quickly become visible, quickly destroying trust and with it any value the web site could potentially enjoy as a means of product promo- tions.

Social networks have to be personal interesting personally for any participant ; participatory opportunities for interaction ; plausible and believable online interactions have to follow some plausible rules ; there has to be the possibility of physical transition the ability to actually go from the online world to the real world is a plus.

Three advertising venues are con- sidered promising in this context: placing traditional ads on a web site; using paid content placement for example, paying to have Second Lifers wearing certain clothes or drinking certain beverages ; and word-of-mouth advertis- ing for example, paying a Facebook user to recommend your product.

How media shares are changing Clutter and media fragmentation have long been serious hurdles for traditional media. Media plans are still too attached to the well-known classic approaches, but audiences do not seem to be listening as they used to. Profound transformations do not hap- pen overnight but the need for fresh approaches is increasing. Generally speaking, traditional media where advertising spending is highest are continually decreasing both in media audience and advertising share.

Dailies are losing ground, threatened by free newspapers and online news outlets. Wherever there is a development in cable and satellite tele- vision, terrestrial television enters into a downward spiral. By , cable advertising spending in the United States was already higher than in the networks. Their total advertising media share is just about 6. In the EU see table 4 , the period has seen a retreat in print media share. Television has increased slightly because of deregulation of some broadcasting markets or increase in cable and satellite expenditures.

Table 1, 2, 3. Table 2. Table 3. The fact that free newspapers already account for Table 5. Audiences do not listen as they used to. There is a relevant degree of media overlap and multitasking. Corporate communica- tion also acquires greater relevance. Discussion and preliminary conclusions The advertising industry is undergoing a momentous time of change worldwide.

In a way, the advertising industry is disrupted by technology. So are terrestrial broadcasting, publish- ing and radio. Advertising follows consumers. And consumers are talking loud. They like good ads, which travel increasingly around the Internet. A better audience understanding will help companies in those in- dustries to develop advertising strategies that are relevant to consumers. This situation calls for a revamp in the way advertising media plans are laid out. Bradley, Stephen P. Clemons, Eric K.

And Now a Few Words from Me. McGraw-Hill, New York Introduction Web 2. One essential basis for this Human-Computer-Interaction was to simplify the process of content production on the net. The success of Web 2. The more a Web 2. Keeping this in mind, it is im- portant for the services to establish incentive systems to motivate users to contribute. There are several reasons for the operating companies winning over the consumer to their platforms.

Furthermore, this improved communication with customers via Web 2. Plus, this customer related forms of communication are typical for the media industry. The function of the user on the Web 2. First, the theoretical background of incentive systems is shortly described.

Since the user can be regarded as a kind of co-worker in this context, an emphasis is placed on the economical incentive models from the area of human resource and knowledge management. In the follow- ing, some selected examples of Web 2. Resulting from an evaluation, recommendations to develop even more effective incentive systems for Web 2.

A Comparison between the Roles of the User of Web 1. When visiting a webpage, the shown information was merely per- ceived and consumed by the user. The users were not able to interact with each other but they had to move individually through the web.

Indeed, there already was interaction between users via chats and e-mail communication, however, by way of comparison only small communities developed. This is based particularly on the fact that content publishing on the Internet at this time required far more technical knowledge which the average user was lacking. The presented content of those pages was usually text-based and impersonal. The scope of action is extended from passive perception of content to active participa- tion and creation of user-generated-content.

The responsibility for con- tent is now partly being passed on to the users, who are now allowed by technological developments, such as Weblogs or Wikis for example, to make use of this new possibilities also without programming skills. One form of co-creation is to provide new multimedia content. The easiest way of contribution is writing and publishing a pure text - e.

However, the same user can also operate as a photographer by publishing his photos on the Web 2. Multimedia content offers more possibilities for the user and thereby also offers more roles with its own set of tasks. But all those different roles have the central idea in common that the users generate the contents actively by themselves. Since a large number of users can be achieved on the Web 2. The role of an evaluation committee is thus be handed over to the community and therefore to the users themselves.

In contrast to the anonymous use of the web 1. He can attach networks and become socially active in the community. His role as a social being within the Internet gets closer to the self-image of his real life. They can be regarded as customers and employees for the platform at the same time, because they generate a huge part of its content: One user con- sumes content which was provided by another user who thereby takes the role of an employee.

There is usually no monetary compensation for the users on Web 2. The larger the active community of a Web 2. Keeping this growth of a com- munity in mind users and user participation become the central aspect for the enterprise success. They take over different roles within the participation in offered ser- vices which can strongly differ from each other. Economic prospects and aims of Web 2. Costs for the enterprises primarily originate from providing an IT-infrastructure, such as server capacities or data transfer rates for the communication with and among users for example.

However, in comparison to the necessary investments on web 1. There are different possibilities for Web 2. Some of those possibili- ties and their sub goals for the companies are described below. Examples are the inquiry for un- common pieces of music or merchandising articles of a Weblog.

In contrast to a regular participant they allow the user of a premium account to make use of an enlarged func- tionality such as special search functions or more storage space for data. Therefore incentive systems might be a helpful tool for Web 2. Gener- ally, an incentive system consists of several incentives, which are deliberately related in order to stimulate diverse aspects.

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