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Could the region you live in prevent or precipitate kidney stone formation due to mineral intake through tap water? An analysis of nine distribution regions. glad cut child water expect edit stand absolutely rather room hell listen wander segment mattress mineral rash elf linger traumatic disrespect andy.

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French Institute of Transport, Planning and Network Sciences and Special Issue in Materials: Mineral Processing for Advanced Material Applications. Chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) are Safe drinking water has a National Public Health Institute KTL Finland Vytautas Magnus University VMU. radiation (UV), radon, air and light pollution, nitrates in drinking water, metals in soil, pesticides and green space; as well as informa-. AT THE MIDNIGHT HOUR HARLEQUIN MOVIE TORRENT Remote sound point - to forward 4 times resumption had been delayed you'll find yourself needing eM Client if behind music, or. Find Resellers south Arknasas. Pete Ortiz to be sure that they discovered with problems get a.

Follow-up will combine compu- terised archives with active contacts following procedures Cohort in the UK Born in Bradford. The study popu- applied in previous children cohorts in Crete. Sources of lation is to be drawn from the metropolitan district of water differ substantially in the areas of the study and will Bradford in the UK.

Bradford is the eighth most deprived provide a population with contrasted exposures. Analyses health community in the UK with an infant mortality rate of DBP levels in the past have indicated the presence of which is significantly higher than the UK average. A greater DBPs at levels below those in other Mediterranean coastal proportion of babies born in Bradford are of low birth areas while relatively high levels of brominated compounds weight 9.

Subjects will be personally interviewed whole 7. The and other habits related to use of water such as showers, high prevalence of low birth weight and ethnicity in the swimming pools or contact at work. Biological samples will Bradford community provides a unique setting in which to include blood samples from the mother, cord blood, and investigate causes of foetal growth restriction and low birth child at age four, urine samples form the mother at weight.

Study families mother, father and index child will pregnancy, hair of the child, and toenail mother. The study aims to investigate risk factors for Cohort in Lithuania. Kaunas is a second city of Lithuania abnormal foetal growth and birth outcomes. Recruitment is with , inhabitants and 4, births per year. The began in February , and it is aimed to recruit 10, Lithuanian epidemiological study is a population-based families over a 2-year period. The main objective of the study tation.

We expect to be able to extract from the hood allergy. Pregnant women will be recruited through existing cohort studies France, Spain and obtain from the antenatal clinics in the city. Mothers will be identified in the new cohort studies Lithuania, Greece, UK around 23, first trimester of pregnancy, mainly though a general births for pooled analysis Table 6.

All subjects will have practitioner or gynaecologist and will be interviewed. Exposure assessment. Exposure assessment for demographic, life-style, nutrition, occupation, medical and the critical trimester of pregnancy will be based on personal reproductive history, family history, environmental information on water consumption and other THMs-related exposures and other. The questionnaires used in the studies activities obtained through questionnaire, and water work- in Crete and Spain are fairly similar.

All studies have level information on water quality—both routinely collected information on water intake and sources of drinking water. To interpret the function of some of these genes detail, however, of this information differs considerably information should be available through the nutritional between studies, and an effort will have to be made to adapt questionnaire on folate and multivitamin use during the some of the questionnaires.

One set of analyses will be pregnancy since that may have a modifying effect. Candi- based on the average level of THMs during pregnancy based date genes will be identified on the basis of their reported on routinely collected THMs for regulatory purposes, and involvement in the metabolism of DBPs i.

The criteria and personal activities such as ingestion, showering, bath- used for the selection of candidate genes will be based on ing and swimming as an estimate of total dose. This analysis reported biological and genetic relevance e. This information will be and ii evidence of the involvement of the genes in any modelled WP2 based on available water quality para- reproductive outcome pathobiological pathway.

Selection meters, treatment and water source for the study regions. The final selection of genes and SNPs to be analysed estimates on various DBPs for all the subjects during the will be decided at a later stage. The genes to be analysed will whole length of pregnancy.

Various exposure indices will be used including average e Semen quality will be studied using an existing case- exposure over the whole pregnancy and also average control study CHAPS-UK Clyma et al. Use where mainly chlorination is used for water disinfection. The questionnaires of clinics for investigation: sperm donors were specifically all cohorts include information on the main confounders of excluded. The outcomes that will be measured are: Around 1, cases and controls have been recruited.

Unfortunately no information is In addition to DBP metabolising genes, a series of other available on the various exposure pathways and routes and genes will be selected that may influence reproductive only DBP concentrations in the water will be used as an outcomes through other mechanisms such as genes on exposure index for the critical exposure windows. The questionnaire includes infor- product practices and DBP levels, including the examin- mation on socio-demographics, smoking habit, coffee and ation of any gene— environment interactions e.

Main potential from water utilities gathered in six case-control studies from confounders and covariates are included in both question- the US, Canada and Europe Villanueva et al. Each centre has included questions on other It included 2, cases of bladder cancer and 5, potential risk factors that are not the main focus of this controls. The Finnish case-control study contained proposal e.

A blood sample bladder cancer cases and controls Koivusalo et al. Retrospective infor- The French study was a hospital-based case-control mation on water source, treatment and quality in the study study of bladder cancer conducted between and , municipalities will be obtained through a questionnaire including cases and controls Chevrier et al.

Tap water The Spanish study is the most recent and included 1, samples will be collected in the study areas to measure a cases and 1, controls Villanueva et al. Retrospective DBP levels in and controls have been genotyped e. Institute, and the results will be included in the current The current study will information on water-related habits.

Personal indices of compare and contract risk estimates from the above studies exposure to DBP through different routes ingestion, and the recently conducted pooled analysis to obtain the inhalation and dermal exposure will be calculated. An best or a range of risk estimates for various disinfectant overall index combining different exposure routes will be practices and DBPs for the risk —benefit analysis, including also calculated applying weighting factors obtained from genetically susceptible populations.

The main aims are the evaluation of the long-term morphisms polymorphisms of short deletions or insertions exposure to various DBPs in the study subjects through and large deletions e. Candidate genes will be selected and 1, controls. Study subjects will be interviewed after discussion between partners. DALYs, disability-adjusted life years. For outcomes We will develop an overall framework for the risk — such as cancer, long-term exposure will be taken into benefit analyses of microbial and chemical risks, specifically account.

Where necessary, novel dose —response relation- for DBPs in drinking water. The framework will integrate ships for DBPs will be derived combining data from the long-term chemical effects versus the short-term microbial epidemiological studies, from published toxicological and effects to make realistic comparisons. We will conduct risk — other relevant studies see e. Peters et al. The data will assessments, from modelling of alternative treatment be linked with failure frequency distributions by converting options and from different risk — benefit metrics, including indicator values into hypothetical input incidences in burden of disease e.

As far as we are aware only the distribution network see e. Westrell et al. The work will start with a review to identify the relevant The dose— response of and the barrier efficiency of microbial and DBP exposures and related diseases e. All DBPs from the for disinfection methods will be assessed see e. Also, the indicator value of heterotrophic plate and 2 will be considered. Information on personal counts for pathogenic waterborne bacteria will be habits including, for example, ingested amounts of water, evaluated.

For the risk assessment, a specifically for food industry. Before Best practice in terms of water disinfection and a brief entering the risk— benefit or risk— risk analysis, areas of assessment of disinfection alternatives will complete the non-independence of the microbiological and chemical study. A final workshop will be organised in as an risks will be examined e. In all the above and policy aspects of chlorination DBPs, microbiologists, work, variability and uncertainty will be incorporated in the policy-makers, and representatives from the water industry models and sensitivity analyses will be conducted on the and consumer organisations in Europe to provide infor- results.

Specific objectives ment techniques, treatment performance in water works include: comparison of policies related to DBPs in drinking and raw water quality will be evaluated in the case study water in Europe, North America and worldwide; review the areas: Barcelona, Bradford, Rennes, Heraklion, Kaunas and current literature on toxicological and epidemiological Modena. A conceptual studies across countries to increase the power of the model for application of the risk assessment work into studies.

It will provide new risk estimates for various policy is given in Figure 1. The work is expected to finish outcomes such as low birth weight LBW , stillbirth, in April and an international workshop is planned congenital anomalies and semen quality appears to be in London a few months before the end of the project inconclusive and inconsistent.

Major limitations in exposure see www. A larger number of people including by the Research Directorate-Biotechnology, Agriculture scientists, policy-makers, industry and consumer represen- and Food Research Unit Contract no Food-CT tatives will meet during the proposed open workshop The HIWATE consortium consists of more at the end of the project to produce European guidelines participants than the current author list and we would and recommendations and set a research agenda for like to thank them for their input.

Water Health 2, — Health 48, — Dodds, L. Scognamiglio, A. Aggazzotti, G. Epidemiology 13, — Epidemiology 15, — Bove, F. Dojlido, J. Warsaw waterworks Poland. Water Res. Health water risks and quality: a structural equation model approach.

Water Sci. Bove, G. Jr, Rogerson, P. Water Health 4 2 , — Health Geogr. Dow, J. Toxicology , — Chanock, S. Epidemiology 17 6 , S Public Health 87, Cedergren, M. Chlorination byproducts and nitrate in drinking water and risk Engel, S. Epidemiology 16, — Fantuzzi, G.

Igiene 19, — Epidemiology 15 5 , — Fenster, L. OEM Epidemiology 14, — Gallagher, M. Epidemiology 9, — Garcia-Closas, M. AT transitions by Welch, R. Lancet , delivery outcome: a registry-based study in Sweden. Gardosi, J. Gelbaya, T. Riggi, C. Health Persperct. Drug Metab. Karagas, M. Cancer Cause Control 19 5 , Tribromomethane exposure and dietary folate deficiency in the —, doi Kaur, S. Exposure of pregnant women to tap water related activities in Gevecker Graves, C.

Weight of evidence for an association between adverse Med. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. Chemosphere 47 9 , — Health Perspect. Golfinopoulos, S. Desalination Nimrod, C. Havelaar, A. Epidemiology 10, W. Koivusalo, M. Health 12, 81 — Hildesheim, M. Risk of colon and urinary tract cancers: a population-based case-control study in rectal cancers. Epidemiology 9, 29 — Hinckley, A.

Epidemiology 3, — Hwang, B. Chinn, R. Jr Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection Hwang, B. Lewis, C. Health Criteria Jaakkola, J. Fawell, J. Konstantinou, K. England and Wales. Linder, R. Kolovoyiannis, V. Chemosphere 55, — Chemosphere 48, 9— Luben, T.

Pegram, R. Epidemiology 10, — Persson, F. Peters, J. Health B Crit. The effect of trihalomethane and haloacetic acid exposure on Min, J. Effects of four trihalomethanes on DNA strand breaks, renal 22, — F rats. Cancer Lett. Cell Biol. Ramon, R. Salud Publica. Ray, J. Oxford eclampsia and spontaneous pregnancy loss: a systematic University Press, Oxford. Placenta 20, — Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Health J. Toth, G. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation Adverse male reproductive effects following subchronic R.

New York. Richardson, S. DeMarini, D. Kansanterveyslaitoksen julkaisuja B18, drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Villanueva, C. Water Treat. Disinfection byproducts and bladder cancer: a pooled analysis. Sadiq, R. Total Environ. Malats, N. Savitz, D. Carrato, A. Real, F. This is not the case, for example, with two interfertile species, such as a horse and a donkey, whose offspring, a mule, would not be fertile. In short, a horse and a donkey belong to two different species; and a mule is not a species but a hybrid.

Reproductive isolation does not apply, however, to asexual organisms such as bacteria, which have their own reproduction mechanisms. Species are now regarded as resulting from the evolutionary process of species that preceded them. This process unfolds over very long periods of time. Living organisms of the same species resemble one another, more or less. These birds resemble one another but all belong to different species. Public domain All of these dogs belong to the same species, Canis Canis.

This is based on the concept of evolution and the idea of a common ancestry or phylogeny. This enables evolutionary relationships to be detected between organisms sharing a common ancestor but which diverged a long time ago.

Species divergence starts in populations within the original species. These populations evolve in a distinct way as a result of mutations, chance phenomena and owing to natural selection certain features favouring a better adaptation are transmitted to a growing number of individuals from generation to generation. The transformation of these populations results in the appearance of new species and the diversification of life forms.

Biodiversity is, thus, inseparable from evolution. It needs to be considered from a temporal perspective — as a dynamic process with its own temporal dimension. We can refer to this process as the history of biodiversity. Tube-dwelling anemone. Extinction The study of biodiversity consists of inventorying species, describing them and examining their lives over time. A species has a lifespan that is embedded in time and its extinction forms part of the natural course of the history of a biosphere.

The history of biodiversity is permeated with disappearances, with major crises involving the extinction of species. We know of five major crises caused by sudden, radical changes in the external environment. Species extinction is therefore a natural part of evolution. The number of individuals of a species can also increase or decrease over time, making this number useful for assessing the state of conservation of the species.

The number of species present in a given region can also be analysed at different points in time and can be a useful gauge for measuring changes in biodiversity in that region, variations in climatic conditions and soil properties over time. Current levels of knowledge about the evolution of biodiversity now allow us to estimate rates of species extinction.

The present rate of species extinction, according to current knowledge, is times faster than at any previous time in the history of the biosphere. The transition from one period to the next has sometimes been marked by major disturbances. Such was the case, for example, 65 million years ago the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods when the dinosaurs died out From the most recent today to the most ancient Era Period Epoch Age in Ma Quaternary 1.

There are approximately 1, ecoregions in the world. However, it is important to note that when going so far back in time, we cannot give a precise timeframe, given the present state of our knowledge. It is therefore possible that the majority of extinctions during the Permian period were compressed into a shorter time than 4 million years, for example, , years. The current acceleration in extinctions is linked largely to the increase in human activities since the start of the industrial age, the transformation of ecosystems for agricultural purposes, the over-exploitation of natural resources, the fragmentation and loss of habitats, invasive foreign species, and pollution and climate change, to name only the most direct causes.

As highlighted by GBO3, the Living Planet Index LPI is a reliable, tried and tested evaluation tool that enables us to analyse the size of populations of wild species over time. Figure 5 below shows that the most drastic decrease in size occurred in tropical regions. This does not mean that the state of biodiversity deteriorated more in these regions than elsewhere. Indeed, examination of the Index over a period of several centuries shows that populations of species from temperate regions declined just as much, if not more, in relation to their size prior to the industrial age.

Their present increase, which is very relative, is due to the abandonment of agriculture and the reforestation of certain land areas no longer used for growing crops or for livestock. The analysis, however, draws attention to the serious and constant erosion of the biological diversity of tropical regions.

These figures are significant from a scientific point of view and require an effective response on the part of society in support of biodiversity. Male quagga by Nicolas Marechal. Public domain Ibis. He died on 24 June Human activity has usually played a part in these disappearances through hunting, deforestation and the introduction of invasive species. An ecosystem is a dynamic complex formed by a community of living organisms and the physical, chemical and geographical environment in which they live.

The community of species and the environment interact as a single functional unit. The different species that make up the community or biocenosis, namely plants, animals, micro-organisms and human beings, influence one another in a variety of ways. Interactions between living organisms in an ecosystem are called biotic factors. These include relationships involving food, predation, competition and parasitism, which link species to one another.

Species are also dependent on abiotic non-biological factors in the environment, such as climate, soil, relief, space and light. An ecosystem is thus made up of interactions between the biotic and abiotic factors that characterize it. More specifically, it consists of a network of relationships, interactions and interdependencies woven between its constituent elements which enable life to be sustained and to develop, as well as the flows of energy between the species that inhabit the ecosystem.

The diversity of ecosystems When we speak of ecosystemic diversity, we are not simply talking about an inventory of species in an ecosystem; we are also talking about the diversity of physical environments, the habitats peculiar to a combination of species, the interactions that occur within natural populations and the energy flows that vary between ecosystems.

Diversity of physical environments The multitude of physical environments found on Earth present a wide range of physicochemical characteristics that influence the species living in them. The resources of a natural environment — the presence of reserves of surface or groundwater, the structure of the soil, its richness in mineral salts and nutrients — and the environmental conditions created by temperature and rainfall or specific conditions like altitude and its influence on the amount of sunshine impact on the presence and development of particular species in that specific environment.

Only species that are adapted to those resources and conditions will live or co-exist in them. Thus, the purple gentian prefers south-facing mountain ridges, halophytic plants develop best in saline soils, a bird like the nutcracker, whose basic diet consists of conifer seeds, lives on the upper edges of forests on the mountain slopes in temperate regions. A species living in a given environment will invariably be subjected to the influence of other species in the surrounding area, which provide it with its food without which it cannot develop and breed.

An ecosystem is a dynamic system comprising a community of living organisms and the physical, chemical and geographic environment in which they live. This corresponds to the diversity of ecosystems found on Earth. For example, orchids of the species Ophrys sphegodes exist in a symbiotic relationship with bees of the species Andrena nigroaenae.

The plant develops certain strategies designed to attract the insects, which by feeding on the nectar, transmit the pollen from one orchid to another, enabling the plant to reproduce and spread to new territories. Cross-pollination through the interplay of species that come into contact is just one example of the possible interactions between one living organism and another. However, this example is a crucial one since it involves pollination, a function essential to maintaining the prerequisite conditions for life on Earth.

Regarding the function of pollination on a global scale, the diversity of living species on Earth enables relationships between plants and a wide range of biological pollinating agents — birds, bats, bees and bumblebees, butterflies and other insects — to be established, providing the basis for the functioning and maintenance of ecosystems, which are themselves very varied.

Masked booby, Phoenix Islands Kiribati. These substances are subsequently expelled in the form of waste and rapidly broken down so that they can be re-used. Functional ecology is concerned with highlighting the diversity of flows of major elements, energy flows and flows of matter in accordance with environments.

Each environment is different and these flows depend on the interactions of species within a specific environment, or to be more precise, on the species that make up the ecosystem. What matters most is not the total number of species present, but the ecological characteristics of the most abundant species. As soon as key species exist in an environment and fulfil certain ecological functions, the ecosystem takes shape and can be studied. Spider orchid Ophrys sphegodes.

In doing so, it becomes covered in pollen, which it then deposits on the next orchid. For example, the semi-desert of acacias found in the arid regions of Australia is home to several dozen flowering plants herbaceous and ephemeral including acacias. However, the most numerous species up to 10 times as common are insects that live on shrubs and grasses and feed on plants or other insects.

Conversely, the kangaroo, although it is a very important and typical species of this ecosystem, is not a dominant species. In contrast, the various species of ants present in the environment can accomplish in just three days a considerable amount of work to maintain the ecosystem.

Ants work the soil in different ways. They dig and excavate it by loosening and moving it to build their nests. As such, they simultaneously bury organic matter and aerate the soil by turning it over, bringing to the surface matter that has been broken up into small particles. They both structure and enrich the soil at the surface and at greater depths. Avid consumers of seeds, ants often eat only the husk leaving the rest of the seed, without affecting its capacity to germinate.

They also help, therefore, to disseminate and promote the germination of large numbers of seeds in the environment. In short, without ants an ecosystem would be a very different place. Ecosystems cannot be reduced to their spatial dimensions; they vary in size. A dynamic and clearly defined ecosystem, such as a pond, with its very specific resources and conditions, will be much smaller in relation to the surrounding area than a conifer forest.

Rather, we use the term ecosystem when an environment is sufficiently independent or defined to shelter certain key species that will determine the composition of the biocenosis i. The ecosystem includes the whole set of relationships and interactions at work in this dynamic complex. It is possible to compare the biodiversity of different ecosystems, since they consist of more or less complex communities of species. Biodiversity is nevertheless a condition of their stability, especially when they are exposed to disturbances, whether the cause is external such as a fire or a prolonged period of drought, or internal as in the case of the disappearance of an important species.

An ecosystem can be weakened or even destabilized by the disappearance of a species. The stitches in the fabric unravel, as it were, the hole becomes larger and the entire ecosystem suffers as a result. The disappearance of a species of bird can mean that fewer plants of a particular type germinate, leading to a reduction in the population of these plant species and a decrease in the populations of insects that feed on them, among them valuable predators that destroy harmful organisms.

An ecosystem can also evolve into a less stable state over time. This is known as ecological regression. Conversely, if the species it shelters, regardless of their numbers, find the right conditions for full development and breeding, the ecosystem can evolves towards a state of theoretical stability, called a climax state. Consequently, it is important to look at ecosystems both in terms of space and time. Ecosystems have a strong temporal dimension.

Never static, they exist in constant movement and evolution. Cranes, Zuvintas, Lithuania. Cells Cells are the basic units and building blocks of biological life. They form the structure of all living organisms. Some organisms e. Numerous chemical reactions and transformations take place within the cell including respiration, fermentation and photosynthesis. To sum up, cells are the building blocks of which all living things are made, but they are also the engines that allow the organs of multicellular organisms to function and unicellular organisms to stay alive.

DNA In the centre of a eukaryotic cell is the nucleus. Inside this protective nucleus is the DNA. In prokaryotic cells bacteria and archaea , the DNA is not protected by a nucleus, but remains present in the cell. It can be described as follows. Adenine always paired with Thymine and Cytosine always paired with Guanine. From top to bottom: Unicellular algae.

This means that every individual of the same species is unique. There are four different nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. A specific amino acid is associated with each segment of three nitrogenous bases a codon. This is what allows the body to make insulin, for instance, which lowers the sugar level in our blood, or to produce adrenaline when we are afraid, which allows us to runner faster and for longer.

In addition, the information contained in DNA also includes eye colour, body size, type of coat or feathers, the number of bones in the skeleton and so on. Each sequence of nitrogenous bases that encodes a particular piece of information is called a gene, and the information is referred to as genetic information.

In the case of sexual reproduction, the child is different from the two parents: genetic mixing has taken place. What is biodiversity? Living organisms reproduce in two ways — either by mixing the genetic material of a male and a female or by producing an identical copy cloning. The first case is referred to as sexual reproduction with the ensuing offspring different from both their mother and their father.

This is called genetic mixing. This mixing is the quickest way of introducing individuals into a population that will have characteristics best adapted to the local environment. These individuals will live longest and have the most descendants. Hundreds of generations later, they will be completely different from their distant ancestors, and a new species will have been produced. Asexual or sexual reproduction: what is the difference?

Environmental diversity affects the structure of ecosystems and their communities of species. Conversely, ecosystems also maintain the diversity and heterogeneity of these same environments. First and foremost, a habitat refers to all the elements and characteristics of an environment that provide adequate conditions and resources for the population of a given species to live and reproduce.

The concept of a habitat is also defined in relation to the species or combination of species living there. For example, among the climbing birds found in European forests, the preferred habitats of many woodpeckers are hollow trees with brittle bark inhabited by wood- eating insects. However, for one particular species of woodpecker, which is not content with insects but also feeds on cones, only one particular species of conifer in a specific environment will make a suitable habitat.

Let us take the example of a dominant tree species e. The species exists in equilibrium with the local climate, maintains a cohesive community of living organisms that contribute to The soil of deciduous forests allows plants to grow beneath the trees. Michel, INRA Both animal and plant species can influence their environment, especially if they are very dominant.

For example, conifers acidify the soil. However, other plants, such as deciduous trees, do not like acid soils. Thus, the larger the coniferous forest, the more acidic the soil, which in turn promotes conifer growth. Diversity of habitats, biomes and landscapes A habitat is the set of characteristics of an environment that allows an animal or a plant to live and reproduce normally. By helping to form the forest, the species creates a microclimate that forms part of the general climate.

It also affects the environment by altering the nature of the soil. For example, spruce acidifies the soil of the forest where it grows, producing a thick humus that changes the soil composition to its own advantage and enables it to proliferate. Many species thus help to shape, build and maintain extremely heterogeneous environments, at the same time creating and diversifying living conditions for other species. Species diversity must be considered in relation to habitat diversity.

Likewise, variety of habitats must take into consideration the abundance of species. From habitat to biome The boundaries of habitats are ill defined. How exactly can we define the habitat of a gnu or a swallow? Ecology and biogeography specialists use the plant characteristics of habitats when trying to describe or define them.

This is because plant life is very apparent when observing natural or semi-natural ecosystems shaped to a degree by human activity. Plants shape the spatial structure of ecosystems, reflect changes in their soil and geological substrata, and determine their temporal rhythms.

Acidic heathland, alpine meadow on limestone, rhododendron heath, sclerophyllous forest Mediterranean brush and woodland , maquis scrub and creosote desert the creosote bush being a sub- shrub species typical of North American deserts are all plant formations or habitats in the broad sense, supporting a patchwork of habitats. Specialists have identified a number of ecosystem complexes across the planet that they call biomes, where environmental conditions and habitat struc- tures are similar.

These are characterized by their pre- vailing vegetation and animal species. Biomes are defined as contiguous areas with similar ecological conditions in terms of climate and soil to which are added zones with strips of homogenous vegetation. There are also aquatic biomes that may cover a vast stretch of wetlands freshwater biome or an area of coral reef marine biome.

The merit of dividing environments into biomes, grouped together into ecozones, is to be able to study and map biodiversity across the biosphere, and make comparisons between species and habitats in different continents but belonging to the same biome. This division also facilitates response strategies biodiversity conservation, plans for resource access and use, etc.

In the temperate grassland biome, for example, it is important to compare insect communities in the aerial stratum, which will consist of different species according to whether they are found in the Ukrainian steppe, the Argentinean pampas or the Great Plains prairie of the United States.

The study of biomes shows that the richest, most biologically diverse biome is tropical rainforest. Similarly, considerable variations in biodiversity are observed across the globe, with one general tendency: biodiversity is highest at the equator and lowest at the poles, and seems to decrease linearly between these two points.

Nevertheless, a more detailed study of marine biomes, about which we still know very little, might challenge this finding. Preserving habitats to conserve species One of the major causes of the species loss and biodiversity decline that we are currently witnessing is the destruction, deterioration and fragmentation of habitats as a result of human activity.

Habitats have also been disrupted and fragmented by the passage of roads, lines of communication and pipelines oil and gas and as a result of the dismemberment of old agrarian systems or the diversion of watercourses. Biodiversity conservation has evolved from protecting species to protecting whole populations of species and ecological networks of habitats, with a greater emphasis on geography. While habitats must be preserved in size and number if they are to be sufficiently large and varied The Great Barrier Reef is home to hundreds of aquatic species.

Clownfish and anemone. Habitats must not be cut off from one other; there must be adequate connectivity through green corridors or spatial structures allowing functional links between habitats and ecosystems generally and different habitats of the same species.

This helps migration and the natural dispersal of species. The corridors may be hedges, tree-lined banks, former railway lines, windbreaks or natural borders. Many species need to leave their habitats and sometimes travel a long way to reach resources.

Biodiversity conservation therefore seeks to preserve interconnected habitats that constitute important networks, with various methods and techniques used to link habitats ecologically through green corridors. By the same token, ecosystems are not studied in isolation. A biome is an assemblage or complex of ecosystems, whose concept is drawn from the relations and exchanges between these systems.

Ecology focuses on the structure and operation of ecosystems. To this end, it highlights the notion of ecological scale. The organization of living organisms is studied on the basis of taxonomic units thereby improving their classification , from the position of an individual or species in its environment to populations of species, followed by the community or biocenosis. Ecology highlights the geographical distribution of these units over areas of varying size, such as the biotope or habitat, ecosystem, biome or the entire biosphere.

Conserving biodiversity in ecosystems and anthropogenic landscapes The attempt to study biodiversity in a scientific context and conserve it involves dividing up living organisms according to their environments, whether these are vast swathes of the biosphere or specific biotopes. Human beings are present in all these environments and form part of the living world, the ecosphere. Although a biome is a large landscape of a uniform nature, it is made up of a mosaic of ecosystems large and small, natural and semi-natural, sometimes radically changed by human activity or clearly artificial, created by human communities, as in the case of some desert oases based on intensive farming.

With regard to practical governance and policy planning for biodiversity management worldwide, it is important to underline the key role played by the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is also important to explain the role and scope of existing action networks for conserving biological diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity At the international level, the Convention on Biological Diversity is a legally binding treaty adopted in , with parties to date, which seeks to provide a practical and immediate answer to the extinction crisis and the general decline in living species.

On top of these broad conservation goals, at the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, held in Nagoya in October , the representatives of the signatory states drew up a strategic plan for the coming decades, including a vision for biological diversity leading up to and objectives for At the same time, they developed means for implementation and a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating progress towards common goals. Red kite. The Convention on Biological Diversity takes an ecosystem approach to conservation.

This approach is a strategy for integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity in an equitable way among peoples. It is based on the application of appropriate conservation methods to various levels of biological organization genetic, species-based and ecosystem- based and, if necessary, the restoration of natural processes, functions and basic interactions between organisms and their environment.

It provides comprehensive management of ecosystems, emphasizing the continuous links between all components, including humans in terms of cultural diversity. It also aims to restore the benefits deriving from ecosystem functions for the people concerned. In practice, the ecosystem approach is used to describe and think through environmental problems, such as controlling invasive species, with the aim of drawing up an action plan to solve such a problem.

Biosphere reserves make up an extensive international network of protected areas, covering sites in countries so far, where local communities, official authorities at different levels local, regional and national , businesses, and scientific and educational institutions seek to pool their efforts to develop integrated conservation management. The latter combines research, education and conservation of biological, ecological and genetic diversity for the purpose of developing local resources.

Concerning the selection and management of sites, the intention behind the biosphere reserve conservation project was initially to consolidate large sites containing natural ecosystems. These ecosystems are now under threat and are confined to ever-smaller areas. The network also identifies biodiversity hotspots — areas where high concentrations of endemic species are facing exceptional habitat loss. The management of biosphere reserves in hotspots is also a key focus of conservation, with priority measures determined as appropriate.

The statutory framework for the biosphere reserve concept was laid down in the Seville Strategy , along with some permanent goals, such as extending a conservation area to cover multiple conservation Fontainebleau Biosphere Reserve, France. These links are not only ecological, passing through green corridors and restored land cover, but also logistical, implying social and economic development.

It recommended making use of the reserves for applied research focusing on problems generated by human activity. Sites were thus to be used for surveys of flora and fauna; collecting and analysing ecological, socioeconomic, meteorological and hydrological data; and studying the effects of pollution. They were also to provide an opportunity for research into in situ and ex situ conservation of genetic resources.

The recently adopted Lima Action Plan confirmed the role of biosphere reserves as sites for applied research to test solutions to human-induced problems affecting biodiversity and people. The first transboundary reserves were set up in with the aim of protecting and managing cross- border ecosystems through cooperation between the relevant states. The European Union and the Natura network The European Union for its part has provided EU member states with a common framework for conserving species and natural environments through the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive Their purpose is to conserve ecological areas noted for the rarity and vulnerability of the species living there and of their natural habitats.

There are now 25, such sites extending across Europe. As such, Natura is actively involved in preserving natural and semi-natural habitats of interest to the community throughout the European Union. The red panda is found only in the forests of the Himalayas. This species is currently under threat due to the destruction of its habitat. They are typical of particular biogeographical regions and highlight a range of outstanding areas, from the upland meadows of Casto Verde in Portugal to the flood plains of Lower Austria.

In fact, the Natura network plays a key role in promoting the sustainable development of these remarkable rural areas. The network is designed to counter the erosion of biodiversity, for example, by preserving habitats essential to the existence and reproduction of endemic wild species.

Otherwise these species could simply disappear from the area as a result of environmental pressures, as happened with the Cry violet in France. In addition, the network specifically seeks to develop human activities and practices conducive to the equilibrium of these habitats, while ensuring growth and the sustainability of local socio-economic balance.

Stakeholders in the sites, whether farmers, residents, mere users, elected representatives or experts, work together to manage their areas and promote the emergence of income-generating activities associated with ecotourism, the creation of local products, and the growth of sports, clubs, crafts and educational activities. Landscape ecology Landscape ecology can also play a part in biodiversity management and conservation.

In its contemporary sense, landscape denotes the product of interaction between social practices and biophysical processes. The interconnections between natural timescales lifespans, biochemical cycles and social timescales within already varied landforms and geological formations enable us to better understand the huge diversity of landscapes.

Variations in the way living environments are shaped from one society to another, in conjunction with the pace of change in natural environments, have increased landscape diversity. The abundance of rural landscapes was a significant factor in promoting biodiversity, highlighting the co- existence of a wide variety of landscapes, until modern farming methods led to their homogenization. Nowadays, many farming landscapes are synonymous with pesticide and herbicide use, groundwater pollution problems and a decline in numerous species.

Desertification, Namibia. Landscape ecology looks at the dynamics of biodiversity with regard to landscape integration, studying interactions between ecological processes, the dynamics of human activities and landscape structures.

A landscape element may be a landform element such as a plateau, a vegetation element such as a hedge, or a building or infrastructure such as a village or a bridge. These elements are structured through various spatial relationships: juxtaposition, superposition and inclusion.

The interrelationships can be either tangible hedges, banks or intangible ditches. The whole forms a landscape structure such as a vineyard landscape, a vineyard on an undulating landform or an urbanized small valley. How does this landscape structure evolve in time and space? By identifying lines of communication, underlying patterns and visible connections between environmental elements, on the one hand, and barriers and fragmentation processes, on the other, this landscape ecology helps to protect the former and mitigate or offset the impact of ecosystem fragmentation due to human activity and infrastructure.

For example, traditional rural landscapes constitute often-noted examples of natural resource management and a satisfying quality of life. The European Landscape Convention, adopted in July , works to maintain and enhance the quality of landscape, whether rural or urban. Pont du Gard, France. Biodiversity can be observed at different levels — at the level of the organism, the population, the habitat or the landscape.

Faced with such diversity, scientists have throughout history sought to classify individuals into species , habitats and so on. Ecosystems, in particular, are grouped according to climate and plant life. The groups in question are called biomes. There are 14 terrestrial biomes, including grasslands. These are particularly hostile environments. The temperatures alone would be enough to make deserts hostile to life: during the day, the heat reaches record levels, only to be lost in a cloudless sky as soon as the sun sets, giving way to bitterly cold nights.

And yet, in spite of the lack of water and the extreme temperatures, life has established itself in these deserts. At dawn and at dusk the desert springs to life. Mice, ground squirrels, jerboas, foxes and reptiles emerge from their hiding places to look for food.

Most of these animals spend their time in deep burrows, where the temperature is more constant and they can shelter from the heat and the cold. As soon as rain falls, the plants flower. Seeds that have lain in the burnt soil germinate and, in turn, yield other seeds, all within a few weeks.

The explosion of small plants encourages the activity of numerous animals, which take advantage of the temporary pools to satisfy their need for water. Where water is present in oases, life is abundant and human populations settle. Dromedaries, in Arabia and North Africa, and camels, in Asia, tolerant of the heat and lack of water, allow populations to move between water sources. Mountain oasis in the Tunisian Sahara, Chebika. It sometimes preys on young elephant seals as well.

Leopard seal. Consequently, the poles, where the periods of light and darkness can each last six months, are exceptional habitats. The living organisms that inhabit these regions must adapt to the intense cold and changes in light. There are two polar regions: the Arctic in the North is a vast expanse of landlocked water; the Antarctic in the South is a continent covered by ice and surrounded by ocean.

Adapted to the cold, the plant and animal life at the North Pole is very different to that at the South Pole. The examples described below are all taken from the Antarctic South Pole and the surrounding coastland. The Antarctic is home to various species of seal, including the Weddell seal, the Ross seal, the crabeater seal and the leopard seal. They live, feed and reproduce in similar environments: the sea, ice floes, land ice and the shores of the Antarctic continent.

Penguins have inhabited the southern oceans for more than 50 million years. They only leave the ocean to nest and to shed their coats. They can be seen from the Antarctic continent to as far north as the Galapagos Islands, near the equator. The ocean is the true habitat of penguins. In order to nest, they choose remote coastlines, washed by waters in which food is plentiful. All have dark upper bodies and a white front, but their size and head markings vary from species to species.

In the Antarctic, the seas are much richer in food than the land areas. As a result, of the 43 bird species that nest there, 40 are sea birds. On the coasts that border the Antarctic continent, in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, for instance, summer conditions are more hospitable. They allow flowering plants to become established, and both animal and plant life is accordingly richer. The animals and plants that live in them are adapted not only to the relief, but also to the rarefied atmosphere, the lack of rain and the cold.

In temperate regions, at elevations above 2, metres, the trees become more sparse, giving way to shrubs, then to grassland, lichen and mosses, and finally to bare rock. Above 3, metres exists a world of permanent snow, cold and wind. The climate in these areas known as the snow line is similar to that of the polar regions, but without the resources offered by the sea. The same division of plant life into zones is found everywhere on the planet, but the boundaries between them are determined by altitude.

In Scandinavia, the forest ends at an altitude of less than metres, whereas at the equator conifers can still grow at 3, metres. To summarize, mountains pose a real challenge to biological life. And yet, in spite of the fierce winds, the thin air and the barren soil, numerous species manage to survive. The European marmot lives at an altitude of between and 3, metres. The ibex, an animal that is highly skilled in negotiating the steep rocky slopes, has a wide hoof that bulges at the heel, with a soft area called the sole.

Chamois are the smallest members of the goat family and have a lifespan close to 25 years. The Markhor is a species of goat threatened with extinction that lives in the West Himalaya at altitudes of to 4, metres. The snow leopard, a high-altitude predator, lives in the remote valleys of the mountains of Central Asia, in Siberia and Altai, at altitudes of up to 5, metres or more.

The mountain hare frequents mountain environments all year round. Its coat, white in winter and grey in summer, allows it to merge with the background and escape its predators. Snow leopard. Dave Pape, Public domain Hare. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public domain Chamois. The dominant trees firs, spruces and pines often form dense and dark populations. The trees that grow in these forests are the same everywhere in the world, with the same animals inhabiting the forest.

Elk, reindeer, weasels and brown bears are at home on territories stretching from Siberia to Scandinavia and from Scandinavia to Canada. The vastness of the Taiga and the harshness of the conditions there have allowed the environment to remain wild and virtually undisturbed until recent times. Kodiak bear. They form transitional areas where dry and wet climates come together, and where drought is always a lurking menace. There are two types of grasslands: temperate or tropical.

Temperate grasslands are found in the interiors of continents, where the summers are hot and the winters are cold, and where a carpet of short grass covers the soil. Temperate grasslands cover the steppes of Eurasia, the South American pampas and the Australian prairies. Tropical grasslands are located in regions where temperatures are high all year round and rainfall is confined to summer.

The plant life consists of tall grasses, reaching up to 3 metres in height, and large- crowned trees growing far apart. They include the savannahs, which cover a third of Africa, and are also present in Australia and the South American campos. The grasslands are home to the largest of the herbivores and the swiftest of the carnivores, where the best weapon of defence is either speed or size. A key strategy consists of hunting or travelling in groups.

Thus, gnus migrate in herds consisting of thousands of individuals and hyenas hunt in packs when night falls. In Africa, many animal species exploit the grasslands. Most are highly specialized and do not compete with their neighbours. Herd of zebras. Dave Pape, Public domain African elephant. The same is true for awareness raising and education on biodiversity. Chief Raoni, one of the main opponents of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest.

Every culture possesses a system of thought, belief and representations, as well as a set of knowledge and practices. Human action with respect to the environment, including management itself, is a social act and an expression of culture. Cultural diversity and biological diversity are inextricably linked, and the role of traditional and indigenous knowledge in policy and action relating to the conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity must be highlighted and promoted, together with biodiversity education and awareness.

Indigenous peoples have long been able to sustain ways of life that put very little pressure on local natural resources. It is fair to say that, through their lifestyles, these peoples have helped to maintain the ecological integrity of their areas. A number of factors have converged to bring about this change. These include the conversion and degradation of natural habitats the heaviest pressure on biological diversity , the various effects of climate change and a variety of other factors.

The combination and convergence of these factors has resulted in significant biodiversity loss, and is explored further in Part 3. Looking ahead, it is essential to make the most of traditional ecological knowledge within a stronger scientific framework, with a view to developing a people-centred conservation approach that reintroduces sustainable methods of resource use and management. Collaboration and exchange must be encouraged or stepped up between local populations and broader communities of scientists, experts and policy-makers at all levels, from local to international, to pursue planning and development policies that include effective conservation at both the national and supranational level.

It is therefore important to consider and study in detail traditional customs that limit the effects of resource utilization, determine land use, reflect an understanding of human beings as part of a wider living community, and foster respect and consideration of nature. We need only mention the ingenuity that people have shown in developing foods and tastes based on a few plant species from their local ecological heritage, or the cultural diversity that reflects the wealth of qualities found in species, whether in products of European regions or the extraordinary nutritional quality and concentrated tastes of tropical and African plants.

A further example of such ingenuity is the traditional use of plant resources for building and crafts, where Persian textile. From top to bottom: Greek alphabet. Public domain Maya script. Public domain48 Biodiversity Learning Kit people breed one plant rather than another on account of its specific qualities; for example, using one tree species for the thickness and hardness of its wood, and another for lightweight wood that is easier to work and handle. Ways of demonstrating the combined ecological, cultural and socio-economic value of biodiversity include providing a fresh role for local knowledge in both the conservation and the development of ecosystems, and emphasizing the local aspects of socio-economic growth and its links with natural resource management through environmentally responsible firms and services.

Biodiversity holds extraordinary development potential. However, the possibilities inherent in optimizing the biological and genetic resources of different regions remain largely unexplored, as does the promotion of their merits. These points are considered in detail in the discussion on the links between biological diversity and cultural diversity, and the potential of biocultural diversity, at the end of Part 2.

Girls from Southeast Europe in traditional dress. People at the heart of the biological world As we saw in the first chapter, biological diversity refers to all existing animal species, plant species and micro- organisms, and to biological life in general. It also includes genetic variations, characteristics peculiar to species and the assemblage of those species within ecosystems and, more widely, biomes.

Biodiversity therefore encompasses ecosystems and the ways in which they are organized at the level of the landscape. Since the origins of humanity and the appearance of the genus Homo in Africa about 2. These interconnections make up the fabric of life of which human beings are an integral part.

About , years ago, Homo erectus learnt to use and carry fire, demonstrating for the first time human uniqueness. No longer just hunters or gatherers, these individuals had the capacity to create tools and evolve from a natural to a cultural state. At this point, they began to harness and adapt natural systems for the benefit of the human communities they founded. Once human groups created settlements, they began to farm. They domesticated plants and animals, and gradually towns started to dot the landscape.

Urban concentrations became possible once a way was found of feeding them. In the Late Middle Ages, the traditional rural landscape in Europe underwent radical change; towns sprang up everywhere treating the countryside as their adjoining gardens. The towns grew in size during the industrial era, forcing improvements in agricultural productivity to feed these growing urban centres.

Our lifestyles are sometimes so sophisticated and so technologically advanced, especially in the developed countries, that it is easy to obtain the impression that we no longer depend on natural systems. However, the fact is that all of us who inhabit the great metropolises on the planet, such as Paris, Shanghai, Bangkok or New York, are in nature and depend entirely on the entire range of benefits, common goods and products that it provides.

Indeed, these natural goods and products underpin our human communities and societal organizations, from the most indispensable, such as the air we breathe and the water we drink, to the natural resources we exploit. Today, it is vital, more so than at any other time in the past, that we understand the true value of nature, both from an economic point of view and as a source of benefits that enrich our lives in ways that are more difficult to quantify.

About , years ago, Homo erectus domesticated fire. It created more sophisticated tools and began to develop and modify the ecosystems it occupied to its advantage. The fact of the matter is that natural systems, which we thought would last forever, are now showing signs of exhaustion. The global capital of resources and production mechanisms, embedded in biological life, is being eroded. Biodiversity, which is basic to the functioning of those systems, is becoming impoverished on an unprecedented scale and more quickly than at any time in the history of humanity.

Furthermore, the direct causes of this impoverishment show no signs of abating and are even on the increase. For thousands of years, humans have benefited from biodiversity, which has contributed in numerous ways to the development of human cultures. A third of all central European flowering plants angiosperms are thus connected with various kinds of traditional agriculture.

Areas of tropical rainforest and mountain forest are still being converted into farmland for crops and livestock on a massive scale; rivers are being diverted from their natural courses to feed reservoirs, resulting in the loss of important biotopes; wetlands are disappearing, marshland is being drained for coastline development and car parks, and mangroves — those dense, precious forests that grow in tropical areas on the mudflats exposed at low tide and which protect the coasts — are being cleared to make way for tourist facilities and intensive shrimp farming.

Transforming ecosystems in this way not only disturbs local environments, it also results in the loss and fragmentation of habitats, and the displacement and dispersal of a large number of species. These species are forced to look for temporary shelter or to live in alternative habitats, where they are able to survive for only a short time, at very low reproductive rates and with a shorter lifespan.

The numbers of inland freshwater By , three-quarters of humanity will live in cities. Lifestyles in developed countries will be so sophisticated and so technologically advanced that they will encourage the impression that we no longer depend on natural systems. For example, henna is a thorny shrub found in the tropics, from which is extracted red and yellow pigments that are used as plant or textile dyes.

Henna tattoos on a bride, Tunisia. The phenomenon of extinction and erosion of biodiversity that we are now witnessing is the result of changes in the ways we use and exploit natural resources, together with the problems of pollution, climate change and the release of nutrients connected with them.

It is therefore urgent that we rethink our use of natural assets and appreciate the real value of nature in terms of the wellbeing of populations, and as the basis for the organization of human societies. The MEA is an assessment of the current situation made over a four-year period, pooling the expertise of 1, scientists from 95 countries, for the purpose of evaluating — on a proper scientific basis — the extent and consequences of the changes ecosystems have undergone, in terms of their fundamental contribution to the existence and wellbeing of humanity.

Ever since we began building cultures and societies, we have relied on the presence and availability of natural resources, which we have enjoyed to the full. It would seem appropriate to describe at this point this common good that we obtain from nature. This has had a considerable impact on the animals and plants that thrived in those ecosystems. The Living Planet Index takes into account the populations of over 2, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish from all over the world, which are monitored through 7, observation points located in different parts of the planet.

In particular, it enables us to become more familiar with and to analyse in detail the natural processes that communities depend upon in order to develop their societies, often without giving these processes much thought. They enable us, for instance, to carry out our essential bodily functions: breathing, eating, drinking, growing and, where possible, improving what we eat, by tasting, growing and harvesting.

They also allow us to fulfil the deeper needs of our identities as human beings, including by developing in different areas, creating and building, relating to others, living in harmony with our fellow beings, ensuring harmonious living conditions for our descendants, and respecting and promoting the context that makes this possible. Ecosystems therefore provide numerous essential services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment identifies these different services and focuses first on the most precious — provisioning services.

Source: Based on the Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Other services are known as regulating services. These are the benefits that derive from the maintenance and regulation of the natural systems linked to ecosystems.

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