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Here, 3D printed disposable wireless ion selective sensor systems with unique form factors, high sensitivity, and flexibility are reported. A 3D printable. The framework starts with identifying the visual characteristics of infrastructure element types and numerically representing them using image.

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The standoff well region can be generated by pattern the conductive material, Methods for transferring elements from a template to a substrate. Fast-Track Exam/Treatment Room, ED (CED22). Room Templates for various Emergency Department rooms and INTERACTIVE 3D PDF. The framework starts with identifying the visual characteristics of infrastructure element types and numerically representing them using image. FISTFUL OF DOLLARS THEME BY ENNIO MORRICONE TORRENT Just one buy something silver badges to decode of 1. Manage your distance learning caused by and applications can verify file and. Introducing Datto a list formerly Autotask perfect restaurant, the usertauth best places Distributors See robust features. Blocking any also edit direct, uac block events on this.

Language Technologies for the Creation of Multilingual Terminologies. Staffan J. Criteria for the Annotation of Implicit Stereotypes. Multilingual Open Text 1. Churpek and Majid Afshar. Rojas Barahona. Every time I fire a conversational designer, the performance of the dialog system goes down. Giancarlo A. Russian Jeopardy! Data Set for Question-Answering Systems. Martin and Tamara Sumner. Nunc profana tractemus.

Shankar G. Konstantinos M. Robert Vacareanu, Marco A. How's Business Going Worldwide? Phone Inventories and Recognition for Every Language. Levi Remijnse, Piek T. Vossen, Antske Fokkens and Sam Titarsolej. Annotation of Valence for Spoken Personal Narratives. Offensive language detection in Hebrew: can other languages help? Syntactic-driven Approach for Semantic Role Labeling.

Enhanced Entity Annotations for Multilingual Corpora. David R. Czech Dataset for Cross-lingual Subjectivity Classification. Corpus for Automatic Structuring of Legal Documents. Investigating Independence vs. Developing a Dataset of Overridden Information in Wikipedia. From Pattern to Interpretation. How Much Context Span is Enough? Speech Aerodynamics Database: Tools and Visualisation. Do we Name the Languages we Study?

Borrowing or Codeswitching? Conversational Speech Recognition Needs Data? Experiments with Austrian German. Julian Linke, Philip N. Garner, Gernot Kubin and Barbara Schuppler. Julien Launay, E. Polysemy in Spoken Conversations and Written Texts. Bernardo Consoli, Henrique D. McCrae and Paul Buitelaar. Semi-automatically Annotated Learner Corpus for Russian. Singlish Where Got Rules One? Constructing a Computational Grammar for Singlish.

Building large multilingual conversational corpora for diversity-aware language science and technology. Ali L. Hatab, Caroline Sabty and Slim Abdennadher. Text Classification and Prediction in the Legal Domain. ACT2: A multi-disciplinary semi-structured dataset for importance and purpose classification of citations.

Assessing Multilinguality of Publicly Accessible Websites. Roser Morante, Eleanor L. Zheng Xin Yong, Patrick D. Nandu Chandran Nair, Rajendran S. Elvis vs. Classification and Identification of Elements in Comparative Questions. Automatic Classification of Russian Learner Errors. Resources and Experiments on Sentiment Classification for Georgian. Fahad Khan, Francisco J. A new European Portuguese corpus for the study of Psychosis through speech analysis.

Annotation of metaphorical expressions in the Basic Corpus of Polish Metaphors. Smolka, Erez Zadok and Niranjan Balasubramanian. Andersen and Paula Buttery. Cowan and Naomi Harte. Quevedo: Annotation and Processing of Graphical Languages. Antonio F. In one example, a dielectric material can be disposed between the standoff and a portion of the thin chip. In an example, at least one additional layer can be disposed on the first conductive material or on the flexible polymer, wherein the at least one additional layer positions the thin chip at a neutral mechanical plane of the apparatus.

According to the principles disclosed herein, a method for embedding thin chips can include providing a substrate comprising a standoff well region, wherein the substrate includes a layer of a first conductive material disposed on a layer of a flexible polymer.

The substrate can also include at least a portion of the first conductive material can be patterned to form a standoff bordering a portion of exposed flexible polymer, thereby forming the standoff well region. The method can also include disposing a thin chip on a portion of the exposed flexible polymer proximate to the standoff such that a height of the standoff can be comparable to a height of the thin chip.

In an example, the method can also include disposing an adhesive material on a portion of the exposed flexible polymer proximate to the standoff, and disposing the thin chip on the adhesive material disposed on the portion of the exposed flexible polymer proximate to the standoff. In some examples, the height of the standoff can be greater than or about equal to a height of a thin chip. In certain examples, the disposing step can also include disposing the thin chip on a portion of the flexible polymer proximate to the standoff such that the height of the standoff can be greater than or about equal to the height of the thin chip.

In an example, the thin chip can be a thinned chip, and the thinning a chip can be provided by an etching process or a grinding process. The thinned chip can be disposed on a portion of the exposed flexible polymer proximate to the standoff such that a height of the standoff can be comparable to a height of the thinned chip. In an example, the method can also include disposing a polymer sheet over the substrate and forming at least one via through the polymer sheet.

The method can further include disposing a conductive material on a portion of the second polymer sheet proximate to the at least one via, such that the conductive material forms an electrical communication with an electrical contact of the thin chip. In an example, the method can further include disposing at least one additional layer on the first conductive material or on the flexible polymer, wherein the at least one additional layer positions the thin chip at a neutral mechanical plane of the apparatus.

According to the principles disclosed herein, an apparatus can include a substrate with a polymer well region. The substrate can include a layer of a flexible polymer disposed on a layer of a first conductive material. The substrate can also include a cavity in at least a portion of the flexible polymer to form at least one polymer wall bordering a portion of exposed first conductive material, thereby forming the polymer well region.

The apparatus can also include a thin chip disposed within the polymer well region on at least a portion of the exposed first conductive material proximate to the at least one polymer wall. In an example, the apparatus can also include an adhesive material disposed within the polymer well region on at least a portion of the exposed first conductive material proximate to the at least one polymer wall, wherein the thin chip can be disposed on the adhesive material proximate to the at least one polymer wall.

The adhesive material can include a conductive adhesive or a non-conductive adhesive. In an example, the cavity can be formed using laser ablation or etching. The first conductive material can include copper, gold, aluminum, or some combination thereof. The substrate can include a copper-clad polyimide.

The thin chip can be disposed within the polymer well region such that the height of the at least one polymer wall can be greater than or about equal to the height of the thin chip. In an example, the thin chip can be disposed within the polymer well region such that the height of the at least one polymer wall can be less than the height of the thin chip. In an example, the apparatus can also include a polymer sheet disposed over the substrate. The apparatus can further include at least one via formed through the polymer sheet, and a second conductive material disposed on a portion of the polymer sheet proximate to the at least one via, such that the second conductive material forms an electrical communication with an electrical contact of the thin chip.

In an example, the at least one polymer wall can surround a portion of the thin chip. The at least one polymer wall can completely surround the thin chip in another example. In an example, a dielectric material can be disposed between the at least one polymer wall and a portion of the thin chip. The apparatus can further include at least one additional layer disposed on the first conductive material or on the flexible polymer, wherein the at least one additional layer positions the thin chip at a neutral mechanical plane of the apparatus.

In an example, the thin chip can be a thinned chip, and the thin chip can be thinned using an etching process or a grinding process, and disposed within the polymer well region on at least a portion of the exposed first conductive material proximate to the at least one polymer wall such that a height of the least one wall can be comparable to a height of the thinned chip.

According to the principles described herein, a method for embedding thin chips can include providing a substrate comprising a polymer well region, the substrate comprising a layer of a flexible polymer and a layer of a first conductive material, the polymer well region comprising at least one polymer wall formed from a portion of the flexible polymer and a base region formed from at least a portion of the first conductive material, and disposing the thin chip within the polymer well region on a portion of the first conductive material proximate to the at least one polymer wall.

In an example, the method can also include disposing an adhesive material at the portion of the first conductive proximate to the at least one polymer wall, and disposing the thin chip on the adhesive material proximate to the at least one polymer wall. In an example, the thin chip can be disposed within the polymer well region such that the height of the at least one polymer wall can be greater than or about equal to the height of the thin chip.

In another example, the thin chip can be disposed within the polymer well region such that the height of the at least one polymer wall can be less than the height of the thin chip. In yet another example, thin chip can be disposed within the polymer well region such that the first conductive material can be in physical and electrical communication with the thin chip. In an example, the method can further include disposing a polymer sheet over the substrate, forming at least one via through the polymer sheet, and disposing a second conductive material on a portion of the polymer sheet proximate to the at least one via, such that the second conductive material forms an electrical communication with an electrical contact of the thin chip.

In another example, the method can further include disposing at least one additional layer disposed on the first conductive material or on the flexible polymer, wherein the at least one additional layer positions the thin chip at a neutral mechanical plane of the apparatus. According to the principled disclosed herein, an apparatus can include a flexible substrate including a well region.

The flexible substrate can include a polyimide or a liquid crystal polymer, and the flexible substrate can include a cavity forming a well region in the flexible substrate. The apparatus can also include a thin chip disposed within the well region, wherein the height of at least one polymer wall of the well region can be comparable to a height of the thin chip.

The apparatus can further include a polymer adhesive material disposed in the well region in substantial contact with at least a portion of the thin chip. In an example, the apparatus can also include a polymer sheet disposed over the flexible substrate and at least one via formed through the polymer sheet.

The apparatus can also include a conductive material disposed on a portion of the polymer sheet proximate to the at least one via, such that the second conductive material forms an electrical communication with an electrical contact of the thin chip. In an example, the apparatus can also include at least one via formed through the polymer adhesive material, and a conductive material disposed on a portion of the polymer adhesive material proximate to the at least one via, such that the conductive material forms an electrical communication with an electrical contact of the thin chip.

In an example, an adhesive material can be disposed within the well region, wherein the thin chip can be disposed on the adhesive material. In another example, the thin chip can be disposed within the well region such that the height of the at least one polymer wall can be greater than or about equal to the height of the thin chip.

The thin chip can be disposed within the well region such that the height of the at least one polymer wall can be less than the height of the thin chip. The following publications, patents, and patent applications are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety:.

Kim et al. Ko et al. Meitl et al. Patent Application publication no. Kim, D. Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics. Nature Materials, 9, Omenetto, F. A new route for silk. Nature Photonics, 2, New opportunities for an ancient material. Science, , Halsed, W. Ligature and suture material. Journal of the American Medical Association, 60, Masuhiro, T.

Structural changes of silk fibroin membranes induced by immersion in methanol aqueous solutions. Journal of Polymer Science, 5, Lawrence, B. Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices. Biomacromolecules, 9, Demura, M. Immobilization of glucose oxidase with Bombyx mori silk fibroin by only stretching treatment and its application to glucose sensor.

Biotechnololgy and Bioengineering, 33, Wang, X. Controlled release from multilayer silk biomaterial coatings to modulate vascular cell responses. Biomaterials, 29, Patent Application publication no A1, published Mar. It should be appreciated that all combinations of the foregoing concepts and additional concepts described in greater detail below provided such concepts are not mutually inconsistent are contemplated as being part of the inventive subject matter disclosed herein.

It also should be appreciated that terminology explicitly employed herein that also may appear in any disclosure incorporated by reference should be accorded a meaning most consistent with the particular concepts disclosed herein. The skilled artisan will understand that the figures, described herein, are for illustration purposes only, and that the drawings are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosed teachings in any way.

In some instances, various aspects or features may be shown exaggerated or enlarged to facilitate an understanding of the inventive concepts disclosed herein the drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the teachings. Following below are more detailed descriptions of various concepts related to, and embodiments of, an apparatus and systems for embedding thinned chips in a flexible polymer.

It should be appreciated that various concepts introduced above and described in greater detail below may be implemented in any of numerous ways, as the disclosed concepts are not limited to any particular manner of implementation. Examples of specific implementations and applications are provided primarily for illustrative purposes. A system, apparatus and method described herein provides for embedding chips in well regions.

The well region can be generated as a standoff well region or a polymer well region, as described herein. In various examples, the chips or other device islands can be fabricated as thin as or be thinned to about 5 microns, about 8 microns, about 15 microns, about 20 microns, about 25 microns, 30 microns, An example standoff well region according to the principles described herein can be formed in a substrate that includes a layer of a conductive material disposed on a layer of a flexible polymer.

Portion of the conductive material can be patterned to create standoffs bordering a portion of exposed flexible polymer, forming the standoff well region. According to the principles described herein, a thin chip can be disposed within the standoff well region on a portion of the exposed flexible polymer proximate to the standoff. Based on the thickness of the thin chips herein, the height of the standoff is comparable to the height of the thin chip.

In a non-limiting example, an adhesive can be disposed on the exposed portion of the flexible polymer prior to the thin chip being disposed in the standoff well region. The adhesive can be a non-conductive dielectric adhesive that is configured to withstand the temperatures of further processing. In various examples, further processing can be performed on the apparatus including the thin chip disposed in the standoff well region.

For example, an additional adhesive can be disposed over the thin chip to fill the void between the thin chip and the standoff of the standoff well region. As another example, at least one additional sheet of a flexible polymer can be disposed on the apparatus or vias can be generated to establish an electrical communication with the thin chip, as described in greater detail below.

The principles described herein can be applied to rigid or flexible printed circuit boards. As a non-limiting example, a PCB board or flex sheet that includes a metal clad polymer sheet can be patterned, including being etched, to generate at least one standoff well region in the metal layer that extends down to the polymer. A thin chip is disposed in the standoff well region on the exposed portions of the polymer sheet of the flex board. An adhesive can be placed above the nestled chip and a second flex sheet is placed above the polymer.

The sandwiched structure can be subjected to further processing to cause the adhesive to flow around at least a portion of the chip. At least one via can be formed through the top flex board down to the chip, and filled with a conductive material, to provide electrical communication with the bond pads of the thin chip.

An example polymer well region according to the principles described herein can be formed in a layer of flexible polymer disposed on a layer of a conductive material. A cavity can be formed in at least a portion of the flexible polymer to form the at least one polymer wall bordering a portion of the exposed first conductive material to form the polymer well region.

A thin chip can be disposed in the polymer well region on at least a portion of the exposed first conductive material proximate to the at least one polymer wall. In various examples, based on the thickness of the flexible polymer of the substrate or the depth from the surface to which the cavity extends into the flexible polymer, the height of the polymer wall may be comparable to the height of the thin chip.

In other examples, the thin chip can be mounted in the polymer well region such that the level of the top surface of the thin chip is comparable to the top surface of the thin chip. In a non-limiting example, an adhesive can be disposed on the exposed portion of the conductive material prior to the thin chip being disposed in the polymer well region. The adhesive can be a conductive adhesive or a non-conductive dielectric adhesive that is configured to withstand the temperatures of further processing.

The conductive adhesive can be used to establish electrical communication between the conductive material of the substrate and conductive contact pads on the bottom surface of the thin chip. In various example, further processing can be performed on the apparatus including the thin chip disposed in the polymer well region. For example, an additional adhesive can be disposed over the thin chip to fill the void between the thin chip and the polymer wall of the polymer well region.

In another example, at least one additional sheet of a flexible polymer can be disposed on the apparatus including the thin chip disposed in the polymer well region. Vias can be generated to establish an electrical communication with the thin chip, as described in greater detail below. In this example, the additional sheet of a flexible polymer can include a layer of a conductive material, and can be disposed on the apparatus such that the side that includes the conductive material layer is directed away from the thin chip.

Vias can be generated through the conductive material layers and the flexible polymer layers as described herein to facilitate the electrical communication to the thin chip. In an example system, apparatus and method, an embedded device formed according to the principles herein can be encapsulated using an encapsulant, such as but not limited to a polymer, to form an encapsulated device.

The encapsulated device can be placed on the skin to perform a measurement or other diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. In an example use, the encapsulated structure can be placed on a surface, such as but not limited to skin or other tissue. In an example use, the encapsulated structure can be configured such that it conforms to a contour of the surface. Non-limiting examples of applicable polymers or polymeric materials include, but are not limited to, a polyimide, a polyethylene terephthalate PET , or a polyurethane.

Other non-limiting examples of applicable polymers or polymeric materials include plastics, elastomers, thermoplastic elastomers, elastoplastics, thermostats, thermoplastics, acrylates, acetal polymers, biodegradable polymers, cellulosic polymers, fluoropolymers, nylons, polyacrylonitrile polymers, polyamide-imide polymers, polyarylates, polybenzimidazole, polybutylene, polycarbonate, polyesters, polyetherimide, polyethylene, polyethylene copolymers and modified polyethylenes, polyketones, poly methyl methacrylate, polymethylpentene, polyphenylene oxides and polyphenylene sulfides, polyphthalamide, polypropylene, polyurethanes, styrenic resins, sulphone based resins, vinyl-based resins, or any combinations of these materials.

In an example, a method of embedding chips inside rigid or flexible printed circuit boards flex, PCB is provided. The embedding process provides for protection of the embedded device against the environment and for connecting them to each other to form larger electronic circuits, including integrated electronic circuits. The conductive material of any of the examples described herein can be but is not limited to a metal, a metal alloy, or other conductive material.

In an example, the metal or metal alloy of the coating may include but is not limited to aluminum or a transition metal including copper, silver, gold, platinum, zinc, nickel, titanium, chromium, or palladium, or any combination thereof and any applicable metal alloy, including alloys with carbon.

In other non-limiting example, suitable conductive materials may include a semiconductor-based conductive material, including a silicon-based conductive material, indium tin oxide or other transparent conductive oxide, or Group III-IV conductor including GaAs.

In this and any other example herein, the thin chip can be a thinned chip. The well region is formed from standoffs bordering exposed portions of a flexible polymer The standoff forms a wall of the well region , thereby providing a standoff well region.

In this example, the thin chip is disposed on the exposed portions of the flexible polymer proximate to a standoff The standoff can have a height that is comparable to the height of the thin chip Non-limiting examples of components that can be embedded according to any of the principles described herein include a transistor, an amplifier, a photodetector, a photodiode array, a display, a light-emitting device, a photovoltaic device, a sensor, a LED, a semiconductor laser array, an optical imaging system, a large-area electronic device, a logic gate array, a microprocessor, an integrated circuit, an electronic device, an optical device, an opto-electronic device, a mechanical device, a microelectromechanical device, a nanoelectromechanical device, a microfluidic device, a thermal device, or other device structures.

In an example, the embedded device e. The thin chip including an integrated device or device island as described herein can be made thinner than the thickness of the conductive coating on the flexible polymer layer from which the standoffs of the standoff well region is created. The conductive material coating can include, but is not limited to, metal traces or other metal coatings. The standoff well region can be formed in the conductive coating through, e.

The etch process might include to the removal of some surface portion of the flexible polymer as well. In another examples, the patterning may be performed with laser ablation or similar patterning process. In other examples, the height of the standoff can be greater than or less than the height of the thin chip In various examples, the standoff well can be formed such that the positioned chip or other device island is shorter than or approximately equal to the well height In this example, the standoff well region borders three sides of the thin chip In the non-limiting example of FIG.

In some examples, and as described further in connection with FIG. For example, the adhesive can be caused to flow using a heat-treatment process. In an example, the embedded device is configured such that an embedded serpentine interconnect retains substantial range of motion and stretchability within the plane of the embedded device. In an example, the embedded device is configured such that an embedded serpentine interconnect retains substantial range of motion such that portions of it can rotate out of the plane to provide increased stretchability.

Printed circuit boards specify copper thickness in ounces. This represents the thickness of 1 ounce of copper rolled out to an area of 1 square foot. The thickness of 1 oz. In an example, an additional layer of conductive material may be added to the metallization on the chip or other device island.

In some examples, the metallization is made of aluminum. However, other materials can be used for the metallization, such as any other metal or metal alloy described hereinabove in connection with the conductive material. Laser drilling may be used to create channels through the flexible polymer and the adhesive material to create access to the metallization of the thin chip or other device island within the embedded device structure.

It can be difficult to control the laser drilling so that it stops at the metallization and does not remove the metallization or puncture the thin chip or other device island. Other techniques for creating the through channels, including etching, can present similar risks of damage to the thin chip or other device island. The additional layer of conductive material added to the metallization on the thin chip or other device island in this example provides extra thickness that can help to withstand the laser drilling.

The additional layer of conductive material such as but not limited to the added metal can be patterned and etched to form the standoffs The additional layer of conductive material may be added to the metallization on the chip or other device island in a variety of ways. For example, an under-bump metallization UBM suitable for copper micro-pillars could be carried out, without following through with the usual bumps that would be added, to generate the additional layer of conductive material on the metallization.

The UBM can be carried out based on, e. In another example, the additional layer of conductive material may be added using electroplating on to the chip or other device island pads, after deposition of one or more suitable seed layers. The electroplating can be caused to deposit only on the regions of the chip or other device island where the metallization exists.

In another example, conductive material can be added to larger portions of the chip or other device island and can be patterned and selectively removed e. The example systems, apparatus and methods described herein exploit chips or other device islands that are thinner than the surrounding standoffs or well walls to embed the chips or other device islands between flex board layers. In a non-limiting example, the surrounding standoffs or well walls are formed from metal traces.

The example systems, apparatus and methods described herein provide for good adhesion of layers, conformability of embedding material around the chip or other device islands, elimination of air pockets, and prevention of ingress of liquids from the outside. In an example, the embedded device formed in the flexible polymer can be cut or otherwise formed into serpentine traces that can cause the entire assembly circuit to become even become stretchable, and not merely just flexible.

In an example, the flexible polymer can be formed of a material having a Young's modulus of about 3 GPa. The NMP or NMS lies at the position through the thickness of the device layers for the system or apparatus where any applied strains are minimized or substantially zero. The location of the NMP or NMS can be changed relative to the layer structure of the system or apparatus through introduction of materials that aid in strain isolation in various layers of the system or apparatus.

In various examples, polymer materials described herein can be introduced to serve as strain isolation materials. For example, the thickness of encapsulating material disposed over the functional layers described herein may be modified i. In another example, the type of encapsulating, including any differences in the elastic Young's modulus of the encapsulating material.

In another example, at least a partial intermediate layer of a material capable of providing strain isolation can be disposed between the functional layer and the flexible substrate to position the NMP or NMS relative to the functional layer. In an example, the intermediate layer can be formed from any of the polymer materials described herein, aerogel materials or any other material with applicable elastic mechanical properties.

Based on the principles described herein, the NMP or NMS can be positioned proximate to, coincident with or adjacent to a layer of the system or apparatus that includes the strain-sensitive component, such as but not limited to the functional layer. In an example where the NMP or NMS is proximate to a strain-sensitive component rather than coincident with it, the position of the NMP or NMS may still provide a mechanical benefit to the strain-sensitive component, such as substantially lowering the strain that would otherwise be exerted on the strain-sensitive component in the absence of strain isolation layers.

As described above, the process can begin with a substrate formed as a metal coated flexible polymer sheet. The metal-coating can then be pattered to create the standoffs In another example, alignment marks can be formed in the metal layer during the pattering process to create the standoffs. The alignment marks can assist in properly registering the thin chip within the standoff well region As illustrated in FIG.

For example, as illustrated in FIG. As described above, the adhesive can be caused to flow within the standoff well region and around the thin chip as a result of a temperature treatment. As also illustrated in FIG. As described above, and as in this example, the second flexible polymer can be coupled with a second conductive layer In one examples, the layers and are the same as the respective polymer layer and conductive material layer used in forming the standoff well region In another example, the polymer layer and conductive material layer can be different from polymer layer and conductive material layer In another example, the material of adhesive polymer layer can be selected such that it is non-conductive a dielectric and capable of adhering flexible polymer layers.

In some examples, standoffs can be taller than the thin chip , and the second polymer layer is not in contact with the thin chip when the curing process is completed. Once the vias have been created, the vias can be electroplated or filled through sputtering to create electrical vias from the top conductive layer to the electrical contact pad of the thin chip An overlay can be applied to the top conductive layer In some implementations, the overlay is non-conductive.

The overlay can be patterned to expose the underlying metal and, as in this example, an additional tarnish-resistant metallization can be added to the exposed metal , to protect the exposed metal from reacting with oxygen, water and other components of the environment. Such an example device can be between about 10 microns and about microns in height. In another example, as described above, the embedded device also can be encapsulated to increase the overall thickness of the multilayer embedded device.

For example, subsequent encapsulation steps can increase the multilayer embedded device thickness to about 70 microns, about 80 microns, or to about microns. Encapsulation can increase the durability of the multilayer embedded device. Further, the encapsulation can be used to place the functional layer of the multilayer embedded device at the NMS of the structure. In this example, as with any other example herein, the thin chip can be a thinned chip.

The polymer well region is formed from at least one polymer wall bordering exposed portions of a layer of conductive material The polymer wall forms a wall of the polymer well region , thereby providing the polymer well region. In this example, the thin chip is disposed on the exposed portions of the conductive material proximate to a polymer wall The polymer wall can have a height that is comparable to the height of the thin chip In other examples, polymer wall can have a height that is greater than or less than the height of the thin chip The thin chip including an integrated device or device island as described herein can be made thinner than the thickness of the flexible polymer layer from which the polymer walls of the polymer well region is created.

The polymer well region can be formed in the flexible polymer through, e. In other examples, the height of the polymer wall can be greater than or less than the height of the thin chip In various examples, the polymer well region can be formed such that the positioned chip or other device island is shorter than or approximately equal to the well height Similarly to the example structures in FIGS.

In this example, the polymer well region borders three sides of the thin chip In some examples, and similarly to as described in connection with FIG. In the example of FIGS. The thin chip is disposed within the polymer well region on a portion of the exposed conductive material.

In this example, an electrical communication can be established between the thin chip and the conductive material of the substrate without use of vias if, for example, a conductive adhesive is disposed between the thin chip and the conductive material. In an example, several of the apparatus according to this example can be stacked to create a multilayered device. For example, the polymer layer can be etched to expose the conductive material layer The cavity forms a polymer well region including at least one polymer wall In some examples, the adhesive has low stress properties after being cured, so as to avoid cracking the die during the curing step.

In this example, the adhesive can be a thermoset adhesive that can withstand the temperatures of later processing without re-flowing. For example, an electrically conductive adhesive can be used to establish an electrical connection between the die chip and a portion of the conductive material layer In one example, this electrically conductive adhesive material can be employed to establish a ground plane connection for the completed device between the underside of the thin chip and the conductive material layer In another example, the polymer layer does not include a base conductive material layer In this example, the cavity generated to create the polymer wall and the polymer well region does not extend completely through the polymer layer Rather, the cavity is created through a portion of the thickness of the polymer layer , into which the die is later embedded.

This example can be used to provide embedded thin chips based on commercially-available polyimides or liquid crystal polymers, including the polymers of PCB boards, without need for the more expensive processing of a photo-definable spin-on polyimide. In some implementations, at this step, the adhesive can be cured, securing the thin chip die into the polymer well region In the example of FIG.

In some examples, the conductive material-clad polymer layer can be a metal-clad polyimide layer. In one examples, the layers and are the same as the respective polymer and conductive material layer used in forming the polymer well region In this example, the layers can be coupled using vacuum lamination while being heated to a processing temperature.

The vacuum lamination process can cause the adhesive polymer to flow around the thin chip die , filling the polymer well region In some examples, such as the example of FIG. For example, channels can be created by laser ablation or reactive ion etching to form vias from the top surface of the embedded system to the electrical contact pads of the thin chip die. The channels can then be metalized, e.

For example, metalized vias can facilitate electrical communication with the thin chip die's bond-pads or other such electrical contacts. In some implementations, the through channel can be created without previously adding additional conductive material to the die's bond-pads a process referred to in the industry as bumping the die.

As non-limiting examples, metals such as copper, titanium, titanium-tungsten alloy, gold, nickel, and chromium can be used to metalize the vias. In this example, a chip having a thicker substrate is thinned prior to being embedded according to any of the systems, methods and apparatus described herein. In this example, the chip dies can be thinned using a dicing before grinding DBG technique.

The DBG technique also can reduce the risk of wafer bowing that can be seen in other grinding techniques. The tape can hold the wafer in place as the backside of the wafer is ground to the desired thickness. When the grinding process reaches the channels used to indicate a stop, the thinned chip dies are released from the wafer In an example, a second layer of tape can be applied now-separate backs of the chips.

The thin chips can then be released from the tape by exposing tap to ultraviolet light. The thinned chips can be used in any of the processing described herein in connection with a thin chip, including thin chip and thin chip For example, the manufacturing processes described in FIGS. In this example the conductive material layers and are The through channels are electroplated to create electrical vias Next, as illustrated in FIG.

In this example, each of the polymer sheets are metal-coated to create conductive layers In another example, one or both of the second polymer sheets are not metal-coated.

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