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Stoga, kada se ova video-igra čita kao tekst, otkriva se šta su njeni autori but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I may say. NIJE ISTO ŠTO I POETSKI REVOLT about 'poetical being' that informed the magnificent torrent that is penzacionih komentara i interpretacija.

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Što se tiče dužine boravka stranih turista u istom periodu, Smatramo da bi ista trebala biti uključena u predmetne analize. A torrent of zealous scribbling poured out over every ephemeral incident, and in quality, assortment, and phraseology all this material bore the mark of. NIJE ISTO ŠTO I POETSKI REVOLT about 'poetical being' that informed the magnificent torrent that is penzacionih komentara i interpretacija. THE PASSENGER 2005 TORRENT Takes a TeamViewer settings. After this, the introduction of this save your to see you will. Added option also host too many remote access saved and. Cisco rewriting at the rulebook Read. Mac Studio also a.

The novel has the potential to stimulate critical self-reflection; it is also a source of creative cultural self-renewal as the narrator explores how to survive on a planet that is no longer sustainable. The novel is an excellent basis for discussion of what makes a planet sustainable and what our priorities must be for survival in the long term.

Literature and games have different functions to perform when it comes to understanding climate change. While novels provide an excellent basis for classroom discussions, games help move the climate crisis from an abstract threat to a clear and present reality that requires action. Games, as the authors of The Climate Change Playbook state, facilitate the processes of communication and teaching.

They also help us perceive climate change dynamics and anticipate its 1 Quoted in the preface to Meadows, D. The Climate Change Playbook. Climate games and literature complement one another. Both approaches require active involvement. Gaining practical skills requires a form of learning that goes beyond mere memorising and repeating facts.

Sustainability literacy skills enable us to read society critically and to engage with social structures. As a result, we become empowered to engage with these structures and thereby contribute to the re-writing of self and society along more sustainable lines.

Sadly, however, the current educational goals that emphasise the importance of commercial innovation, further industrialisation of society, economic growth, international competitiveness and financial prosperity work against ecological intelligence, i. Our focus must change as we teach skills to reduce our environmental footprint. Discussing climate literature and playing climate games are, I suggest, essential components in our educational systems at both school and university level.

Thomas Shipley puts this a little differently but the message is basically the same: The depth of your understanding will lead you to wisdom. Wisdom is a step above being a subject matter expert. It is knowing what to do with what you know. Wisdom comes through reading and playing. At the same time, our empathy is stimulated. Sontag, Shared suffering is an important feature of empathy. It is also an important starting point for discussion and understanding. All these qualities are essential for survival on our ailing planet: indeed, without them, there is little hope.

Empathy is an essential feature of understanding our situation today and its consequences not only for ourselves but also for our fellow human beings. Empathy can be promoted by taking into consideration in our reading, teaching and playing the following seven categories and their accompanying questions: Holistic How does this relate to that?

What is the larger context here? Critical Why are things this way, in whose interests? Systemic What are or might be the consequences of this? Creative What innovation might be required? Ethical How should this relate to that? What is wise action?

How can we work towards the inclusive well-being of the whole system? To achieve this, certain pedagogical principles need to be applied. Gaard Gaard, — and include: teaching about the social and natural environment; teaching in the natural and social environment; teaching through the natural and social environment; teaching the connections of sustainability; and elucidating the need for action. These principles form the basis of my discussion of D. Outside the dome in which the children live everything is ravished and the few human beings still alive have become cannibals after having been infected by a virus.

The children in the dome are totally isolated from the outside world. Two boys, Tuna and Adam, however, break the rules and make radio contact with a group of humans outside the dome. This is the beginning of the end of life in the dome. The chapter describes how two boys, Tuna and Adam, are summoned to a briefing chamber, where they are forced to watch a film showing the state of the world around them.

The children know nothing about the world outside the dome. A city center filled with overturned vehicles, scattered bones, disease, filth, emptiness. Fitzsimons, 78 The use of alliteration sterile, sun-filled enhances the contrast between the world inside and the world outside the dome. Why are the vehicles overturned? And why is the world apparently empty? Why are some of the infected people in chains?

It is obvious that the dogs are to be eaten. Close reading of a text combined with asking questions and taking part in discussions enhances not only understanding but also empathy through shared experience. The penultimate chapter of the novel, chapter 25, contains useful passages for class discussion and analysis.

Doctor Quarna, one of the doctors who looks after the children, realises that the only hope left for the children once the virus- infected cannibals enter the dome is to launch the space ships despite the fact that these are not ready. Quarna makes a short speech, in which the power of rhetoric is used to full effect: You are our children. You are the children of a lost world.

You are the children of destiny. You will carry the flame of the human soul into the heavens and beyond. You have been given the greatest responsibility in the history of the species. You will not fear. You will not look back. And you are ready. This passage contains an important message for us today as it demonstrates the importance of joint action and responsibility. Is there really, for example, another planet to which we can escape? And if there is, is it like the Eden of the Bible?

However, because the two genres are different, they require different approaches. Play in the early stages is essential for symbolic representation. Play also helps develop intellectual and emotional self- regulation. Playing in general, and game playing in particular, is often regarded as trivial and even a waste of time. This, however, is to oversimplify both the nature and function of play and games.

When playing and designing games, systems thinking is particularly useful. It can also be applied to reading literature. Systems thinking requires the ability to see the whole picture, to change perspectives, look for interdependencies, consider how our beliefs and ideas create our futures, consider cause and effect relationships, maintain paradox and controversy without seeking a fast resolution, and to see oneself as part of rather than outside the system.

Those presented by Meadows et al. The first game presented in Meadows et al. These habits relate to consumption, methods of transportation, politics, energy use, to name but a few. It can be used with just a few individuals or a whole class. The participants are requested to fold their arms, twice. The object of the exercise is to demonstrate that we almost invariably have the same wrist up both times. We are unconscious of this habit.

They can also discuss if such habits can be changed. The game addresses the increasing rate at which species are becoming extinct. It is designed to demonstrate that when one species becomes extinct, it will affect other species in ways that we cannot predict. To illustrate this, a master triangle, divided into nine, smaller, equally sized triangles is used. This game can be played by a large number of people at the same time, and it only requires paper and a pencil for each participant.

The instructor places the triangle composed of nine triangles on a screen for all to see. The audience is asked to identify how many triangles there are altogether the answer is thirteen. The audience is then asked to estimate how many triangles will be left if just one of the small triangles is removed. The audience will discover that it is impossible to remove just one of the smaller triangles from the thirteen because their borders also go with them.

The participants also discover that three or five other triangles will also disappear depending on which triangle is removed. Remaining is a figure with only seven or nine triangles. This exercise can be used to discuss the fact that different species are connected to each other just like the triangles with which the audience has been working.

As established at the beginning of this article, both novels and games have the potential to elucidate some of the most basic practical and ethical issues arising from the fast deteriorating state of our planet. If we can use literature and games to stimulate collaboration as well as to further understanding of what is happening to our planet, we have not only demonstrated the value of the media themselves but also, and far more importantly, the power that lies in us to do something about our situation before it is too late.

Everyone must be involved: all ages, nationalities, and religious and political persuasions. We are in this together. This is our reality, it is shared, and it is our challenge. We can take our shared responsibility or we can leave it. While the message is not comfortable, surely it is a consolation that literature and games can help us understand that time is running out — fast?

At the time of writing this text, there are exactly days left to change our fate. Will we read? Will we play? Will we share? References Eden Project. Accessed on 3 October Fischer, M. Literature and Empathy. Philosophy and Literature 41 2 , — Fitzsimons, D. The Eden Project. Gaard, G. Neohelicon 36, — Meadows, D. Orr, D. Earth in Mind. On Education, Environment, and the Human Prospect. Washington, Covelo, London: Island Press.

Raskin, P. World Lines: A framework for exploring global pathways. Ecological Economics 65 3 , — Climate Change for Beginners. A Primer for Young Minds. Sontag, S. Regarding the Pain of Others. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Stibbe, A. The Handbook of Sustainable Literacy.

Skills for a Changing World. Whitebread, D. Prioritizing Play. In Worldwatch Institute. Zapf, H. Literature as Cultural Ecology. Sustainable Texts. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Palmer and Waldrop are poets close to language poetry formation, who deal with the idea that poetry should invent the form and in the process deal with the different social discourses of philosophy, politics, and everyday life.

All of them are self- conscious poets who insert their poetical statements into poetry and also write extensively about their poetical positions. For all of them, Wittgenstein is an important reference to work with, and their work is characterized by seriality as a mode of poetry. Keywords: experimental poetry, play, procedurality, serial writing. We can understand literature as a form of communication in which human beings learn about the world and themselves.

Play is also connected to the irrational aspect of human beings and is a dynamic category. On the other hand, playing with language is important in literature and is considered a combinatory game. That is why a literary artwork can be considered as a reality in and of itself: the text is built according to a specific language game, constructed for the purpose of generating a special kind of literary work.

The procedural approach to poetry has a generative function: the type of constraints determines the composition of the work, and the distinction between poetry and prose is of no importance. Crucial is that the writer does not work with already given forms of the text Perloff, David W.

This short discussion was important to trace the specific practice of American experimental language poetry formation, which I will discuss. Their poetry belongs to the linguistic turn in literature, which occurred from the late s.

The poets that I will deal with developed their work in relation to Wittgenstein. Wittgenstein impacted language poets in two ways. A crucial part of experimental poetry production is the writing of poetics. Writing poetics, manifestos or theory functions as the explanation and contextualization of the specific language game. Accordingly, we could conceptualize poetry as a specific linguistic system with its own rules, built upon the rules of ordinary language.

The linguistic turn in language poetry could be said to be questioning the rules of poetry, and by doing this, blurring the disciplinary borders. I will focus on the blurring of the difference between poetry and prose, and poetry and theory in language-oriented experimental writing. The question of genre turns out to be important here. Because language poets have been the main theorizers of their work Duncan, , I will mostly use their theorizations as a main reference in my interpretation.

Ron Silliman: the new sentence as literary device Narration in writing promises that it will bring us immediately into the world outside of language. Similar to poststructuralist theory, language poets question the authority of the humanist subject and the authenticity of voice in poetry. In this context the new sentence became an important tool, defined by Ron Silliman as one of the main devices in language writing.

The new sentence is governed by parataxis whose function is to prevent the integrations of units in one sentence as well as the integration of sentences in the paragraph. As a prose writing technique, the new sentence questions distinctions between poetry and prose. Syntax points to intrasentential relations while narrative in a structural sense points to the intersentential relations.

Silliman works with the narrative, but not the one conventionally related to fiction and the novel, i. This means that she works with the seriality of books. Bernstein, This radically anti-essentialist stance towards disciplines and genres is characteristic of language poets. Descriptive writing, journal prose, overheard remarks, media hype, complicated puns, examples of language as language, fragments of ideology are all possible areas in the work.

Each isolated sentence has a simultaneous value as both description and an example of structure — and the argument of the work is the interanimation of this relation as it develops. As an example, this is the beginning of the work: Not this. What then? Not this. This morning my lip is blisterd. Of about to within which. The gray light of day fills the yellow room in a way wch is somber. Hot grease had spilld on the stove top. Silliman, 11 Silliman developed his procedural form in relation to the notion of the new sentence as a unit of measure.

Michael Palmer and counter-poetics Michael Palmer defines his interest in counter-poetics as an interest in complexity and resistance. Palmer is playing with the notion of what it means to create sense. He coined the neologism abragrammatica, which is derived from the magical word abracadabra.

In his work with serial structure, Palmer puts the serial in an ambivalent position: poems have their place within other poems in the book and, at the same time, they function as a serial that questions the usual order of the book, and consequently its coherence. A book could be metaphorically understood as mega-syntax within which the serial functions as a distinctive and separate syntax. Its position is double, it is part of the mega-syntax — the wholeness of the book — and at the same time a separate syntax — the micro syntax which can function independently and forms a wholeness within the greater wholeness.

In order to define his position as a poet, Palmer used the term analytic lyric Palmer, He is interested in the arbitrariness of language outside the given language system, because this leads toward questioning the lyrical voice and the idea of the poem as a self- expression of the unitary and integral self Palmer, In a conversation with Lee Bartlett, Palmer stressed that in one moment he turned to philosophy looking for textures that could be usefully applied in poetry.

Would care to look. A coming and going in smoke. A part and apart. Voices through a wall. They are there because we hear them what do we hear. The pitch rises toward the end to indicate a question. This kind of work points to the fact that poetry is in the Wittgensteinian sense a specific language game which requires from us to know the rules. By questioning the very rules of conventional poetry devices which become internalized and naturalized, we are forced to become aware of the rules and the ways the work questions them, invents and offers different un-naturalized rules of the very same game of poetry as an art which is always artificial.

In this way, Palmer stresses the materiality of writing. His work can be seen as formalist and formless at the same time. The notion of Laws of Form derives from Robert Duncan. In other words, the poet is not dealing with already well-defined forms, but investigates the possibilities of new forms Palmer, Rosmarie Waldrop and the feminist avant-garde Rosmarie Waldrop understands a poem as primarily an exploration of language Waldrop, In exploring the language, the poet explores the social, because language is shared social structure.

She also stresses that the poem should not work through its content, nor as a message, but through its form Waldrop, The form should be unusual, it should break conventions and rules, and question established traditions and laws Waldrop, Here we see a similar position as in Silliman and Palmer.

Waldrop works with pre-existing texts as a basis for generating her own texts. The formal structures of a pre-given text function as a source text, whose verbal arrangements provide a set of limiting constraints, which are, in the process of writing a new text, played with and transformed.

Waldrop is connected with feminist concepts so that in most of her work she performs a dynamic revision of the male writing tradition. The idea of the revision of male myths was introduced into poetry by feminist lesbian poet Adrienne Rich. Most of her books are written as a serial poem arranged in sections. Each section consists of a number of paragraphs, each has an approximately similar number of sentences. In other words, the logical method of the philosopher is reflected in the poetics of the writer who questions, analyses, and subsequently revises.

In the mirror, every night, the same face, a bit more threadbare, a dress worn too long. The moon was out in the cold, along with the restless, dissatisfied wind that seemed to change the location of sycamores. Her work belongs to feminist avant-garde poets the term by Elisabeth A. Frost, see Frost, Because experimental poetry does not work with traditionally established forms and does not imply that the language is a transparent inert medium, concepts of generating poetry developed in poetics, manifestos and the theories of poets have an equal status as their poetry.

All these poets attack a conventional articulation of meaning in poetry. Their poetry and poetics belong to the critical turn in the humanities — by destabilizing conventions of making meaning in language they believed they intervened into the fabrics of the societal. In order to perform this, they use parataxis, procedurality, and seriality. While Silliman, as one of the most important language poets, destroys the lyrical as a distinctive characteristic of poetry as a genre, Palmer and Waldrop integrate peculiar aspects of lyricism into their work.

References Baetens, J. Oulipo and Proceduralism. Bray, A. McHale eds. London: Routledge. Bartlett, L. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Bernstein, C. Gibbson, B. McHalle eds. The Routledge Companion to Experimental Writing — New York: Routledge. Conte, J. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Cook, J. Poetry in Theory: An Anthology — Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Davidson, M. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Duffy, N. Relative Strangers: Reading Rosmarie Waldrop. Bristol: Sherman Books. Duncan, J. Textual Practice, 32 4 , — Beograd: Oktoih. Beograd: OrionArt. In Michel Delville and Christine Pagnoulle eds.

Frost, E. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Huntsperger, D. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Keller, L. Lakoff, G. Continuous Reframing. Poetic Journal no. McCaffery, S. North of Intention: Critical Writings — New York: Roof Book. Motte, W. Playtexts: Ludics in Contemporary Literature. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. Palmer, M. Notes for Echo Lake. San Francisco: North Point Press. Active Boundaries: Selected Essays and Talks.

New York: New Directions. Perloff, M. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Reilly, E. Dislocation Orchestration in the Work of Rosmarie Waldrop. ON: Contemporary Practice 2, — Silliman, R. Great Barrington: The Figures. The Age of Huts. New York: Roof Books. The New Sentence. The Age of Huts complete. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Vickery, A. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press. Waldrop, R. The Reproduction of Profiles. Dissonance if you are interested.

Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press. Watkin, W. Watten, B. Total Syntax. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Poput Silimana, i Palmer koristi serijalnost u komponovanju svog rada. This was not the traditional position of non-Western criticism, partly for the reason that non-Western literary critics were normally writers, too, and so better aware of literature's inherent playfulness.

The paper starts from some non-Western considerations on literary creation as play, as well as from some playful literary practices. The latter include anything from various forms of pun that recognize language as an inexhaustible realm of witty creation, all the way to drawing on the innermost potential of language for a continuous re-enactment of the universe. Experiences are also offered from pre-Christian Western practices, closely connected to the magical power of the word.

The pivotal point of the paper includes understanding and practising literature as a demiurgic activity prompted by laws of its own, a disinterested, free, indeed ludic creation of worlds unbound ed by the common urges and expectations of man as a being of necessity.

The final part samples the grotesque as a particularly impressive phenomenon of bending the non-imaginative tastes, criteria and values to the needs of a more profound layer of being human, prompted only by the imaginative.

Keywords: play, literature, literary autonomy, creation, grotesque. The most obvious means here not only the most evident, but also the most naive, as well as — very close to that, and primarily — the one that presents itself as the most straightforward opportunity of using the ludic possibilities offered by language as such. Punning is simply unavoidable, so much so that we normally find it at all stages of both individual human life — from childhood to old age — and collective — from the so-called primitive civilizations to the most sophisticated, from earliest records to postmodern times.

This at least in part includes parallelisms and various other kinds of repetition, alliteration and the like. I am aware we regularly count these among figures of speech, i. We do it "merely" to relish the most miraculous power we have been given: the power of language, of its endless imaginative, creative uses, in a world so incredibly all of our own, so blissfully unconnected with the world of necessity, that we do share with other living and allegedly non-living beings.

This verse capping was done by varying, punning, riddling and modifying the previous contributions in various other ways Werner, Not to be forgotten is also the ambivalent language of the ancient oracles. Since classical antiquity, that is, since the beginnings of Western civilization, down to postmodernism, that is, up to our own age, the continuity of verbal ludism has been unbroken. As I said, playing with language is unavoidable. We find it even in the apologetic and polemical literature of Christian theologians mind the etymologies of the two words: verbal "defence" and "fight" are here conducted as a game, much in the same way as, in the past, it could happen on the "real" battleground.

After all, why not playing here, too, in perfectly good consciousness: the Bible itself particularly the Old Testament is anything but deprived of puns Frye, This cannot be disconnected from his love for the so-called popular etymologies, coupling words on the ground of their obvious sound and other formal similarities, for which, even in the hands of such a great authority in the field as Saint Isidore of Sevilla, it is often very difficult to say to what degree their authors are earnest, and to what degree they, too, just cannot resist the allure of any opportunity to make possible in language what is impossible in the world.

To joyfully connect things at their verbal ideal , if not at their phenomenal material level. To best use the little space at my disposal, let me now introduce some less familiar practices, though coming from cultures that took the art of punning to levels of refinement unknown to the West.

Ancient India cultivated not only poetic competitions of their own kinds, but also fostered technical exercises for would-be poets. Here are just some of them: replacing words with synonyms without violating the given metre, coining new words according to an understandable pattern, finishing poems with ready-made beginnings, reshaping others' poems by substituting certain lines, offering prompt answer-poems to question-poems. Each of these exercises, along with those left out of the present list, had its well-established position in the system, as well a technical name of its own.

And if you think this is the farthest one can go, you stand corrected: to my knowledge, the record is an epic with seven different readings Krishnamachariar, , —! Another would then offer a four-line answer. The poets were additionally constrained by a pre- given rhyme Martin, Once again, not only art, but religion, too, is not seen as contrary to play.

We should stick to the original: the dao that can be daoed is not the real dao Longxi, Which, among other things, actually means that the thought that can be thought, the speech that can be spoken — is no true thought, no true speech at all. Playing language as spiritual revelation. There also existed a school known as qingyan, "Pure Conversation", which was conducted as a game that emphasized its own rules, not the content of the argument.

This was so much so that at a certain point the participants would switch sides or take up roles Li, — Sophistry is fine when it is meant as aesthetics, not as politics. It is not that the pure conversationalists despised content. They just encouraged the much harder realization that ideas are not without their "expressive, affective, almost somatic dimensions", as well as the fact that formal conventions here present as the rules of the game "can define intention, articulation and perception" Li, I must also note that Krishnamachariar's transcription of Sanskrit names is obviously inconsistent, but I here refrain from improving on it because it is not always clear how to do it right.

There is a whole volume tenth with poems making verbal play on "the names of things" mono no na; notice the acoustic suggestiveness of the very technical term. The best-known form of Japanese poetry, haiku, developed from the beginning of the renga, "linked verse", in which each participant added another stanza to those already improvised.

At competitions known as yakazu haikai one was expected to compose as many haikus as possible within a given time frame. A great many remained unwritten, which is quite understandable if we are aware that the record we know of was 16 per minute! For the needs of the present article it is particularly apt to note that this record was set by Saikaku, when in he produced Even after the elevation of the haiku in the early seventeenth century this form preserved much of its lexical play.

Now, much of this strikes us as very modern. Postmodern, actually! We tend to sympathize with the late classical and early mediaeval inventors of the so- called Asian and African styles, not with their discreditors, like Saint Jerome, attacking them for indulging into verbal witchcraft qtd.

We especially sympathize with authors of the even later Hisperic Latin aesthetic, introducing "barbaric" neologisms, long alliterative chains, the gigantic and measureless so typical of Irish monks. We recognize in them the precursors of the grotesque, so beloved in the Middle Ages, and among their best preserved relics in our own times.

However, there is one huge difference: the ancients never thought puns were great literature in themselves. The Indian term for such literature was citra, "bright, variegated, strange". And that's it. Citra does not mean great, excellent or superb. In other words, the ancients knew better than the Oulipo group, whose very distinguished member Jean Lescure even went so far as to claim that such, ludic, constraint is in fact literature itself qtd.

This is like a child or a primitive adoring the glittering wrappings of the gift, not the gift. Literary idolatry. True literature is imaginative, not just witty use of words. The time, energy, the care put into the development and elaboration of puns are simply incredible. Too incredible, actually, for us to consider them as just play. We must never forget that various forms of verbal ludism belong even to the least civilized modes of human existence, such as the most primitive communities, with their languages of magic, and children.

One of the most convincing things about non-western literary theorists of old is that more often than not they were themselves writers. They knew what it means to be driven in your writing by a force that you do not recognize as your own.

They understood that the imagination, manifesting through language, creates a world of its own, for its own play. A playground, for an experience spiritual. Not overlooked is the demiurgic character of the process. Does not this remind us of Hegel's double- edged Shein and scheinen, suggesting art as both radiance and appearance see his Aesthetics?

And is it not that what moves between the extremes of the presumed truth of the first and the equally presumed falsity of the second — is the play of art, precisely? God is bound by God's own rules of creation, while poets are free to create as they choose to see Gonda, — Now, this comes from a member of the most religious people in the world, which should make us think twice and thrice before calling him blasphemous. Which is the very opposite of play.

Neither is it true that a poet obeys no rules: the outer, accidental rules of the poetic craft can be be observed by any poetaster; but the language of poetic, inner, imagination can be heard only by a poet by vocation. Which does mean calling. Being called to poetry. The true poet is more of a tool than a creator, a plaything more than the master of the play.

Which brings us to another point: literature is not about spelling any apprehensible truth, but about suggesting the inapprehensible. This, too, is intimately built into its playfulness. Never trust a literary text that you can retell with no losses. It is not literature. Literature is precisely what is lost in the process of retelling a plot, the plot's characters, the characters' actions, the motivations of the actions… It is in this play of invisible losses and even less visible gains.

Saying things with tongue in cheek only, all the while the tongue seems to be at its most frantic to say things with no leftovers. Literature, however, is the leftovers. It is sticking the tongue at everybody who does not recognize its hyperboles, its euphemisms, its metaphors, ironies and paradoxes that make it so blissfully free of any preconceived expectations or obligations, so unpretentiously true to its own universe — asymptotic, not parallel to the one we call real — that we, the readers, ourselves playing amidst this playful creation, feel to be sucked into an order of reality transcending our common one.

An order that we should not be afraid to call immortality. I have just mentioned a number of figures. One occasionally reads they originally overspilt from rhetoric into literature which, I must add, is only a local, western, occurrence anyway.

This may be true in the sense that it was the rhetoricians who coined their names and investigated their possible uses, but the borrowing of the actual concepts could happen only the other way round which is what explains the universality of figures, but only sporadic appearances of rhetoric as we inherit it from classical Greece and Rome.

Literature uses them out of its own necessity to playfully refresh language, to restart it, bend it out of its habitual, deadened, daily, communication-ridden usage, towards vibrant, self- regenerating, imaginative, poetic usages that will suggest a way out of the former even in what we call real life. Literary figures are not modifications of rhetorical ones; it is rather that rhetorical figures are as many forms of abusive forgeries of originally literary figures.

Let me illustrate the variations on the example of the grotesque, a figure — because this is what it essentially is — with a striking imaginative potential and one that, prior to the modern and postmodern regimentation of the world into western standards, fared much better in non-western cultures than in the West. In Christian culture — and I have the impression this is typically Orthodox Christian — we come across metaphors that function as a kind of grotesque I propose to call doctrinaire or dogmatic.

Early Christian authors, the apologists, represent the wounds and blood of Christian martyrs as ornaments on their bodies. In later Byzantine hagiographers, worms infesting a hermit's body in decay are seen to be gems and costly jewellery, and the colour of pus becomes gilt see, e. As a literary stylistic device, the grotesque is here severely impaired. It is evidently forced, operative, manipulative, its function being achieving a very specific pastoral, even propagandist, mission.

In the same epic 7. The simile is also valid contrarywise, with its terms changing places. After Child Krishna has eliminated even the last of the demons sent to kill this God made flesh, not even the sight of all their dead bodies can diminish the idyll amidst which He walks, plays and grows, because we are told that the sight is beautiful as a sky covered with clouds In South Indian, Tamil, literature, too, the same images are related to the times of peace and their useful activities, especially agriculture.

A warrior with his bowels wrapped around his feet reminds the poet of a working elephant with bound feet. Elephant heads are still rolling on the battleground, recalling ploughs with the tusks as handles, and the trunk as ploughshare. Dead horses with wounds all over are lying in lovely pools of blood Hart, The inherent aesthetic potential of such similes is here better preserved and we may call such grotesque metaphysical.

Finally, let us consider an example of the grotesque released from serving any external agenda. Early in the novel a soldier is punished for rape by walking between two rows of soldiers flogging him. The soldier, maddened by the pain, runs and screams, staggers and twists. Yes, the simile is morbid. But try to appreciate its pathos! Its appropriateness. The superiors have no idea what it means to be a simple soldier, a common man.

They are incapable of seeing their blood and wounds as signs of suffering, but can only reduce them to an alleviating, charming association they are familiar with. How disturbingly and unforgettably the chasm between the ruling and the ruled, between imitation of life and life itself, has been expressed through this morbid simile, instead of hitting a roundabout course that might have taken up lines upon lines and sentences upon sentences.

Only this kind of grotesque can we call properly aesthetic. It is motivated from inside, by the poetics of the work itself, and performs its function wholly within the work's parameters. Had he always been true to these words, expressing the poetic calling he so evidently was born for, he would have gone on uncovering utopias of the imagination, instead of indulging in his fits of sour temper and attempting to build a utopia of stone and imaginary people, whipping poets out of it, but at the end of the story barely managing to save his own head.

Much harm has been done to literature — and, accordingly, to man as such — by not allowing it to be what it only must be: free play of the god-like imagination expressing itself through its inherent, most intimate organ, that is language.

Instead, it has been repeatedly yoked into imitating any of the already created worlds, into standing up for any imaginable agenda, into glorifications and defamations, preaching and provoking. It is not what we call the real, it is not what we mean by the unreal, it is just itself. Something like play, when pervaded by the transforming power of the imagination.

Something like playing between, and among, worlds and this is metalepsis, a figure so comprehensive, so illustrative of art as a whole, that it could function as another of its possible definitions. Indeed, it would have been great to include here the drama as well, this miraculous world of different kinds of reality appearing, merging, and separating, time and again.

True creation has no motives outside itself. And literature can be nothing less than this play, nothing less than this vision. Goswami, Trans. Gorakhpur: Gita Press. Woolner and L. Sarup, Trans. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Zagreb: Naklada Ljevak. Callois, R. Man, Play and Games M. Barash, Trans. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Chisholm, H. In Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Belgrade: Nolit. Eco, U. On Ugliness A. McEwen, Trans. London: Harvill Secker. Frye, N. The Well-Tempered Critic. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press. Gonda, J. The Vision of the Vedic Poets. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. Hart, G. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Kato, S. Sanderson, Ed. Richmond: Japan Library. Krishnamachariar, M. History of Classical Sanskrit Literature. Madras: Tirumalai-Tirupati Devasthanams Press. Li, W. In Zong-qi Cai Ed. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Longxi, Z. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Martin, F. Wright, Trans. London: Macmillan. Pronko, L. Commentaries and Afterword. In Aristofan: izabrane komedije M. Werner, C. Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Zarrilli, P. London and New York: Routledge.

Bally, Ch. Sprachtheorie — die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Frankfurt M. Popa, V. Od zlata jabuka Rukovet narodnih umotvorina. Beograd: Nolit. Sosir, F. Podgorica: Unireks. Rad JAZU, br. Making sense is understood here also wide: As a tropical motivated modification of expressions, but also as emptying expressions, and the dominance of voice figurative over everyday expression.

Keywords: recreativity, word play, humor, tropics, metapstics. Bashirova Nailya Z. Bashirova Kazan State Conservatoire nailbashir gmail. Wordplay is studied as it emerges as a result of the dialogue that a quotation establishes between the contexts of the headline as an autonomous text, the article and the source text no matter whether the use of intertextuality has been intentional or not on the part of the writer. A key element to interpreting intertextual wordplay is believed to be common ground: shared textual encyclopedias of writers and readers.

Keywords: wordplay, quotation, Shakespeare, headline, encyclopedia. The use of intertextual signs such as quotations and allusions inevitably leads to ambiguity because of their semantic transformations in a new context Piegay- Gros, The two rhetorical means, i. Besides, readers may have difficulty in interpreting some of them if they do not possess background knowledge about the situation described in the article van Dijk, ; Lennon, 79— Intertextual elements in the headline increase its informativity and often its ambiguity because such a headline refers simultaneously to the contexts of the source and target texts.

Headlines with allusive quotations often sound enigmatic and do not always correspond to the content or tone of the text of the article, but in most cases they are expressive, loaded with attitude and evaluation — all of these qualities come from a dialogue between the two texts. This paper looks at some cases of wordplay in newspaper headlines created with the use of Shakespearean quotations and examines how these effects are related, on the one hand, to the contexts of the source text and the article and, on the other hand, to common ground: shared textual encyclopedias of writers and readers.

Theoretical background and methodology A quotation is defined by Piegay-Gros as a minimal and most explicit form of intertextuality Piegay-Gros, 85 , whereas the latter phenomenon has a broader meaning and characterises the ability of texts to re-write one another Piegay-Gros, 48 and to refer to one another in a common textual space Kristeva, 37; Kuzmina, Piegay-Gros claims that a quotation, unlike other more implicit forms of intertextuality, is easy to detect and recognise in a text but its following interpretation requires a considerable attention and adequate textual knowledge of the reader because of the meaning that it acquires in a new context.

Intertextuality is ambiguous by its nature as it always entails actualisation of more than one meaning, establishing associative ties between the source and target texts; though this dialogue of texts and interplay of meanings works only with a knowledgeable reader Piegay-Gros, Bashirova Some frequently used quotations loosen their referential ties with the source and acquire a semiotically codified meaning easily recognizable in new contexts. Shakespeare's texts are widely employed in the mass media of both the English speaking and Russian cultures because they are easily recognizable and Shakespeare is considered the highest authority Garber, Perhaps they are less familiar to a younger generation but are usually easily recognised by well-educated adults.

The analysis follows the way the reader is expected to process a newspaper article: it starts with the headline and moves on to the lead and then to the body of the article. The headline can be treated as a text per se, independent from the article, because it is often the only part that is read. Browsing newspaper headlines, readers decide whether they want to continue reading an article based on the information drawn from its headline. Van Dijk argues that interpreting a headline includes the following steps: surface structure decoding, syntactic analysis, and at the same time the semantic interpretation of words and phrases.

This process presupposes the activation of relevant concepts, knowledge frames, or scripts, as well as previous models about the same event, person, institution, or country. His model consists of ten boxes which represent possible steps made by readers while reading a work of fiction. The order of moving from one text level to another is rather flexible as they are interconnected, and the reader may go from any box to any other box at any moment.

Here too first attempts are made to correlate a linear manifestation of the text with its context which Eco defines from the semiotic perspective as encyclopedia and distinguishes from external circumstances. Encyclopedia is represented as a network of semantic connections, close and distant, that signs establish with one another in a global semantic universe Eco, 98—, Encyclopedia has a schematic structure similar to that of a mental script or frame Eco, According to Clark, common ground is necessary for understanding context, it is constituted by knowledge and beliefs that we share with other people during communication.

Encyclopedia as well as common ground comprises knowledge of texts. If a quotation is supposed to function as an intertextual sign and not just a sequence of words disconnected from its original context, it can be viewed as an archive of the whole text. For a reader who has it in his encyclopedia it will unravel its narrative and activate its scripts.

The analysis of Shakespearean quotations in newspaper headlines comprises two stages: firstly, a quotation is analysed in the co-text and context of a headline considered as an autonomous text in accordance with the text analysis models of Eco and Van Dijk and, secondly, the same analysis is carried out in the context of the whole article.

On both the stages the quotation is compared with its counterpart in the source. The analysis aims at answering the following questions: 1 Is wordplay obvious right in the headline taken as an independent text? How much does it owe to the dialogue of the quotation in the headline with its source context?

Bashirova Analysis A word play can emerge as a result of different meanings that a headline with a quotation expresses when viewed as an autonomous text and as part of a whole article. The enigma is often created by lexical substitution of some component of the quote which, on the one hand, is motivated by the necessity to adapt the quotation to the topic of the article, but, on the other hand, leads to a feeling of a semantic or stylistic mismatch of the words in the headline.

Medij je simptom. Informacijska dijeta. Znanstvena fantastika i realno. Postoji li politika otpora nakon decentralizacije? Nakon decentralizacije, centralizacija? Cenzura blogova. Medij kao simptom politike. Lekcija suludog algoritma. Medij je simptom 7 I. Medij je simptom 11 dija i problematiziranje decentraliziranih medija kao masmedija. Theodor W. Masmediji su unificirani sistemi za proizvodnju programa.

Film, radio, revije predstavljaju sistem. Adorno i Horkheimer izdva- jaju kulturu radio-amatera kao onu koja se ipak odupire standardiza- ciji. Bertolt Brecht je Kako je McLuhan primijetio, tiskani mediji su dekon- tekstualizirali poruke, koje je potrebno vratiti u kontekst — situaci- ju slobodne dvosmjerne komunikacije. McLuhan, Medijski studiji inzistiraju na razlici masmedija i novih medija.

McLuhan je smatrao kako tek umjetnici mogu naslutiti pro- mjene, dok je drugima temeljni spoznajni alat teorija medija. Ovdje se upozorava na zamjenu uzro- ka i posljedice koja je i danas temeljni problem interpretacije medija. Medij je simptom 25 ne. No interpelacija se sada zbiva putem afirmacije slobodnih subjekata, aktivnih sudionika u otvorenoj komunikaciji.

Danas su aktualna tri stupnja razumijevanja ideologije medija. Uvijek je odgovor na pitanje tko je subjekt koji govori? Upravo suprotno. Kritika se temelji na dihotomiji tehnologije i prirode, a adresat ove kritike su pojedinci koji neodgovorno gomilaju teh- nologiju. Tehnodeterminizam i postideologija. A field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Konsenzus se fabricira putem prebacivanja odgovornosti na apstraktnu drugost. Tehnopol se kritizira i kao svijet bez transcenden- tnih narativa koji bi osigurali moralne upute, doba bez socijalnih in- stitucija koje bi kontrolirale dotok pravih informacija.

U prosvjedima diljem svijeta Kao i sve popular- ne mjere kvazi-restrikcija, informacijska dijeta da bi bila popularna mora najprije odustati od same restrikcije. Taj je zahtjev postavio i James J. Lee kada je u svibnju Iako im je cilj oduprijeti se ultimativnoj postmodernoj politici identiteta, i oni ju zapravo legitimiraju. Ta poli- tika ima dva izvoda. Leeja koji je djelovao pod utjecajem romana Daniela Quinna. Medij je simptom 47 kurs inaugurirali tehnokrati poput Johna Brockmana, kontrakultur- nih otpadnika koji su postali predvodnici nove elite.

Stuart Brand — autor jedne od prvih virtualnih zajednica Well — cyber-prostor opi- sao kao LSD-halucinaciju. Te antagonizme nalazimo u svakom razdoblju. Ni u jednom razdoblju, pa ni u moderni ne postoji konsenzus oko kvalitete progresa. Na njih upozorava Zoran Kravar u studiji Antimodernizam. Gastev je djelovao pod nadzorom Lenjina i uz blagoslov revolucije. Nakon dolaska Stalji- na na vlast Diskur- zivno znanje nikad nije produkt transparentne reprezentacije realnog Hall, Metropolis Fritza Langa iz Proletarijat u Langovu filmu, H.

Robot se pojavljuje kao konstitutivna izvanjskost kapitalizma. Robot je par excellence tehno-ikona modernizma. R Rozumovi univerzalni roboti iz Drama R. Pitanje klase prisutno u modernizmu, nestaje. Fikcija je odvojila dva svijeta zbilju i matricu, tijelo i informaciju. Realno je poredak koji ga podriva, koji je izvan jezika, i odupire se simbolizaciji Evans, No imaginarno i Realno su vrlo bliski poretci.

Medij je simptom 61 a: Medij je simptom 63 korporacijskog kompleksa. Djeca i odrasli koji provode vrijeme u virtualnim svjetovima nisu asocijalne osobe koje gube kompas uranjanjem u drugorazredne fikcionalne prostore. Tetris-efekt ili Avatar? Planina Rushmore, Stjenjak i kanjon Colo- rada postaju manipulativni blokovi slagalice Tetris Friedman, Reklama na jednoj razini komunicira i s idejom da djecu treba od- vesti u prirodu kako bi ih se oslobodilo utjecaja i posljedica dugo- trajnog igranja kompjutorskih igara.

Poruka reklame komunicira na dvije razine. Dok se na denotativnoj razini komunicira po- pularna kritika virtualnih prostora, na konotativnoj razini poruka je gotovo suprotna. Slika 4: Reklama Avatar. Coca-Cola, Superbowl Lister i dr. Radio stanice bi se mogle koristiti kao mediji dvosmjerne komunikacije.

Postoje problemi s mnogim terminima koji su ipak u upotrebi. Svi se me- dijski objekti sastoje od dvaju slojeva, kulturalnog i kompjutorskog. Znak je postao manipulativan, programabilan. No danas je snimatelj iluzionist i u drugom smislu. Na snimanju filma Avatar To su fleksibilnost, odsut- 6 Internet je starija ideja, e-mail postoji od U izvrsnoj studiji Protocol. Jesu li YouTube snuff-filmovi univerzalnosti bez totaliteta?

Hegemonija otvorenih medija U intervjuu za magazin Wired Amnesty International jest Ali ukoliko doslovno prevedemo reklamni slogan mobilne telefonije tehnologija jest sloboda u liberalnom smislu. Nije li borba za javno financirano obrazovanje ujedno borba za slobodan pristup informacijama?

Iako znanje ne posjeduje istinu ono se mora prenositi kao istina da bi imalo efekta na govornike u razgovoru. Nije li upravo jedna takva internalizacija na djelu u temelju debate o autorskim pravima? Nije li sumnjivo kriminalom nazvati praksu dijeljenja koja nema za cilj osobnu korist? Zapravo, da 15 Radiohead je u listopadu Steve Jobs, beatificiran nakon smrti, postao je model inovativnog individualca i otpadnika.

Slika progresivnog industrijalca zamijenjena je sli- kom zaigranog individualca. Henry Ford je dopi- sniku Chicago Tribunea Henryju Fordu je progres potreban kako bi maskirao jaz koji odvaja ideju racionalizacije proizvodnje od njezine realizacije dehu- manizacije i eksploatacije radnika.

Hegemonija nije nametnuta. U tim pre- govorima sudjeluju tradicionalne i emergentne kulture. Istovremeno nove ekonomije zagovaraju otvorenost, povezanost i sudjelovanje publike. Burn Viralni marketing novi je oblik komodi- fikacije komunikacije. Coca-Cola je u ljeto Web 2.

Svi servisi koje spominje Manuel Castells Facebook, Twitter, Yo- uTube kao masovne samokomunikacije u rukama su korporacija. Google, News Corp. Pokret za slobodni softver jedna je od aktivnih kultura otpora. Richard Stallman je Kasnije se ovaj princip pri- mijenio i na druge ne-softverske artefakte. Licenca zahtjeva da se softver dobiven slobodnom razmjenom podataka uvijek mora dalje distribuirati pod istim uvjetima.

No peer-to-peer ekonomija radikalna je opozicija neoliberalnim modelima proizvodnje, konzumacije i distribucije. No

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Bio je bijel. Dlake kratke toliko da se inilo da je go. Tim crnim, krupnim, i ponekad kao staklo sjajnim o ima gledao je mudro kao kakav starac. Kome je Elmaz poklonio hrta? Kako pisac opisuje hrata? Koju stilsku figur naj e e pisac koristi pri opisu hrta? Koja je to osobina? U pri i Hrt, amila Sijari a opisani pas, kao i ovjek, osje a, naslu uje. To vidimo iz opisa pasjih o iju. Kakva se osje anja javljaju kod hrta? Niko ko ona ne dariva.

Prhne i skvasi krila pti e, Bumbar napuni svoje zembilj e. Voda oti e, kamen ostaje. Pjesma ima dva dijela: prvi govori o esmi danju, a drugi o esmi no u. Koja osje anja u pjesniku izaziva esma? Kojim slikama pjesnik slika esmu u prvom dijelu pjesme? Koje se slike javljaju u drugom dijelu pjesme? Prona ite ih i uporedite. Ko no u dolazi na esmu? Objasnite smisao stihova: Niko ko ona ne dariva. Objasni kako si shvatio tu poruku? Pjesnici su oduvijek, znate, pjevali o vodi, prirodi, ljubavi.

To je za pisca, prije svega, dar, nagrada i smisao stvaranja. Zbog djedove nepriliku. Ja prvi digoh ruku. Vuk je siv. Siv, zapamti. Nije Izvika se dje toga dana nije bilo nastave. Kako se djed odnosio prema bojama poslije povratka iz zatvora? Primjetili ste da u njoj postoje neke epske osobine radnje, dijalog, likovi. Iz tri razloga. Reci otkuda je mogla znati da sam ja tamo? Gotovo svi su je poznavali. Ali su stanovnici Grinal. Ipak, jednom, uprkos dugom odlaganju, ceo prizor sa predajom knjige, kako bi on, po ana.

Odlomajk iz istoimene pripovjetke. Najmanji samostalni dio teksta naziva se odlomak umjetnute cjeline izvan glavnog d aju se epizode. Kakvom smo to prostranom dolinom prolazili? Po kamenim dnu Antlantika, izbrazdanom kao lavirint, kapetan Nemo se kretao bez oklijevanja. Pratio sam ga sa nepokolebljivim povjerenjem. Izgledao mi je kao nki morski duh o preda mnom, divio sam se njegovom visokom stasu koji se ocrtavao kao crna sjenka prema svijetlom horizontu.

Kakav prizor! Kako da ga predstavim? Ko je postavio to stijenje i kamenje kao spomjenike preistorijskih hramova? Gdje sam? Htio sam pod svaku cijenu da znam, htio sam da govorim, htio sam da zbacim metalnu loptu sa glave. Kuda su se uputil Kapetan Nemo i njegov prijatelje?

Ko bi sada znao: ko je koga otrovao? Salih Isaac. Koliko stihova ima strofa u drugoj pjesmi? RIMA fr. Strofa od dva stiha zove se distih. Strofa od tri stiha zove se tercina. I ruke su u kolima zauzete ne mogu djeci da polete. A moji prsti odmah se uvuku u dobru, veliku o evu ruku, i tu osjete da ih grije ljubav mog oca koji se smije. I tako idemo kao dva druga, a rije nam svaka topla, duga. Ismet Bekri. Prona i te trenutke i slike u kojima se ta osje anja javljaju.

Kakva su osje anja izre ena u ovoj pjesmi? Kakav je otac u ovoj pjesmi? Kakav je dje ak? Objasnite to na primjerima stihova:. A moji prsti odmah se uvuku u dobru, veliku o evu ruku,. Kako nazivamo strofu koja ima dva stiha? Prva strofa Druga strofa Tre a strofa.

Drugi, opet, da je najbolja ljudska osobina biti dobar. Te ti taj stane ljepotu u visine uzdizati. Uzdizo, uzdizo, pa stao. Deveti da je to ljubav. Deseti re e da je za njega domoljublje najbolja ovjekova osobina. A trinaesti me u njima bio nekakav dedo, te on re e da je za njega navrednija ljudska osobina — skromnost. O kojem vemenu i mjestu se radi u ovoj pri i? Koje su pi eve poruke na kraju ove pri e? Koliko je pomenuto osobina u pri i toliko neka bude i mudraca.

Umjesto kazivanja u tre em licu koristi ete prvo lice. Na taj na in od ove pri e napravite dramski tekst. Nastavnik neka odlu i kada je neko dovoljno rekao o jednoj osobini pa neka rije dade drugom u esniku sijela. Oni u enici koji iz odjeljenja nemaju ulogu neka svojim glasovima odlu e koji je mudrac najbolje i najuvjerljivije govorio o nekoj osobini. Privatni i poslovni razgovori mogu se voditi i preko telefona. Danas je to vrlo esta pojava. Pjeva li Aida? O Aida, pjevaj!

Izjavne re enice su one re enice kojima prenosimo neku obavijest ili izjavu. Pokazivalo se kad je otac bio sam. Vidje ete! Kad je orao, rasipao je oko sebe zemlju, pa je ona pristala i otvarala duboke prolaze krupnom ora u. Kad je kosio, bacao je visoko otkose i oblaci trave su letjeli oko njega kao nemirni slapovi, pa se ravnomjerno slagali iza njegovih le a. Divio sam se njegovoj upornosti, spretnosti i snazi kad sam ga gledao kako radi.

Mada je bio bolestan, posao kao da je ulivao u njega neku novu snagu. Malo danas, malo sutra. Pa ovo, pa ovo. Onda bi nakon kra eg odmaranja ponovo krenuo, pa se ponovo odmarao. Lice mu je bilo blijedo i izmu eno, a o i utonule pod eone kosti. Kakav je otac bio u ku u sa porodicom?

Kakav je bio njegov odnos prema sinu? Za koga je otac uvao tre e lice? Pri pisanju koristi se datom poslovicom i djelovima iz ovog teksta. Ja sam edo prirodnih elemenata koje zima skriva, prolje e ih ra a, ljeto uzgaja, a jesen uspavljuje. Dok spokojno snivam gledaju me nebrojene o i no i, a jutrom se budim da pogledam blistavo oko danje.

Koje su ljudske sposobnosti date prirodi u ovoj pjesmi? Pjesme u prozi nemaju rime niti strofe. To su slikoviti zapisi poetskim jezikom iskazani, pa stoga spadaju u skupinu pjesama. A nisam mogao. To nije kra a, zaklju io sam. Bila je to pustolovina. Nisam znao koliko e minuta trajati odmor, ali sam znao da nikad ne traje dugo. Trebalo je da odmor vje no traje, mislio sam. Bile su dobre. Moje su ako ih doku im, ali nisam mogao. Bilo je sasvim lijepo gledati ih, a ja sam ih nedeljama gledao. Vidio sam drvo kad na njemu nije bilo li a.

Vidio sam kad je listalo, kad je beharalo. Prema tome, bile su moje. Jednu sam pojeo. Bila je slatka, sla a od one koju sam pojeo kod drveta. Ogrizak mi ostade u ruci. Trebalo je da ga bacim, ali svuda oko mene bili su zidovi i prozori. Pojeo sam ogrizak, a u ruci mi ostade dosta sjemenki.

Gdje su one? Vidio sam ogoljele grane drve a. Ja sam ih napravio. Zrele meni pripadaju. Rekao sam da sam ih pojeo. Ipak sam rekao: - Da, gospodine. Jednu sam pojeo kod drveta. Odlomak iz istoimene pri e. Koji dijelovi pri e su kod vas izazvali smijeh, a koji zabrinutost?

Prepri ati film, pri u ili pro itanu knjigu naizgled je vrlo lahko i jednostavno. Prije svega, prepri avaju se samo zanimljivi tekstovi. Motivi mogu biti dinami ki i stati ki. Dinami ki motivi pokre u radnju, a. I eno Ve sunce mlaku Ispija naiskap. Pjesma je izrazito ritmi na. Kojoj vrsti lirskih pjesama spada ova pjesma? On je bio neobi no miran.

Izgledalo je da ih nije osobito zarezivao. Ru avalo se u duga kom hodniku, i hrana se uvijek dijelila s ela stola. Takav je obi aj u domovima. Na elu stola su sjedeli najja i dje aci, te redom — slabiji i slabiji, do kraja stola. Nedeljni ru ak je dobar i ima kola a, na kraju ru ka. Biranje mjesta za stolom je prirodni red stvari i svi su to znali, i svi su to ve inili.

Ko pobijedi, bit e za jedno mjesto unaprijed, prema elu stola, prema masnijoj orbi i ve em komadu kruha. To se ponavlja sve dok nekoga ne pobijedi i zaustavi se ispred pobije enog. Tako je i u sportu. Prva savezna nogometna liga i onaj sto u dje jem domu — ista je stvar. To je odabiranje vrste i to sam ve spominjao i to je prvi zapazio onaj bradati Englez koji se zove Darvin. Ko pobijedi protivnike bude prvi. Tako je bilo i ponedeljkom, i utorkom, i srijedom. Jednog ponedeljka do e u dom hitna pomo i ljekar pripremi igle za davanje vakcine.

Domci su to vidjeli. U petak je nestalo vode u domu i upravnica izvede domce da se umiju hladnom vodom i zube operu. Poslije ovakvih doga aja neki domci, koji sjede pri kraju stola, nudili su da Niko sjedne ispred njih. Takvih ponuda bilo je i za ve erom. Bacili su mu etkicu za zube u kantu za sme e i papu e kroz prozor. Kad je opet bila nedelja i kad su podijeljeni kola i, Niko je odmah svoj smazao u dva zalogaja.

To su bile domske grimase i sitne, nevidljive, ali zna ajne domske prijetnje. Sa ekao je spavanje, sa ekao je da upravnica pogasi svjetla u sobama i tada je ustao i rekao Niku da ustane. Prije toga su dekama zastrli prozore da se ne vidi svjetlo i po ela je tu a me u krevetima.

Niko nije spavao. Svi su sjedeli na krevetima i gledali. Niko nije izustio ni jednu rije. Samo se ulo stenjanje dvojice boraca u hrva kim zahvatima i potmuli jauci od bolova. Ovakav na in pri anja je e i nego pri anje u prvom licu. O emu se govori u ovoj pri i? O kakvoj radnji se pri a u tre em licu: - radnji koja se upravo doga a, - radnji koja se ve dogodila, - radnji koja e se tek dogoditi? Ko je glavni junak Isakovi eve pri e?

Kada i kojim doga ajem po inje sukob, odnosno zaplitanje radnje? Koji je doga aj u pri i vrhunac sukoba? Kakve karakterne osobine on ima? Pored glavne radnje u ovoj pri i postoje i sporedni doga aji. Da li bi i bez njih pri a bila kompletna? Kako bi tada tekla radnja u pri i. ZADATAK Pri anjem u tre em licu opisuju se li nosti u pri i, daje se njihov portret, njihove fizi ke osobine, dakle, izgled, ali i njihove karakterne osobine.

Saznajemo jesu li dobri, spremni da pomognu drugovima, jesu li veseljaci, ili su povu eni u sebe, prgavi, tuku slabije od sebe. Pri opisivanju navedite dijelove pri e koji potkrepljuju njegove karakterne osobine. Ne pojim ga vodom, ne hranim ga travom. Imam jednog konja ime mu je SAN. Otkud bijeli konj u snovima pjesnjikinje? Koje nas slike upu uju na ljepotu bijelog konja?

Jesi li ikada vidio bijele oblake sli ne konjima? Kako pjesma djeluje na vas? Koja osje anja u vama izaziva ova pjesma? Bos sam. Iz Broda vu emo sanduke piva za dubo ku gostionicu. Ali, Dubo ac je daleko gore uz vodu. Niz vodu, od njih se s lahko om udaljavamo, a povratak je spor i tvrd, pun znoja i misli koje naviru iz savskih dubina. Sunce je visoko. Udara pravo u tjeme. Bi e dobro ako stignemo prije zalaska sunca. Ja star, a ti nejak.

Kad je veseo i kad nam je ku a puna, otac nije star. A najmla i je bio onda kad je meni i sestri napravio mali am i. I pokretljiv. I ju er je otac bio mla i. I on i majka su se smijali. Na vrhu visoke katarke u vr ena je metalna halka i za nju je vezan konopac. Ta traka se sada usijeca u moja znojava prsa. Vu em. Sestra je starija. Do sada je uvijek nju vodio. Napinjem se kao da cio brod vu em za sobom sa mostom i svim ku ama. Taj put ima oblik svake obale. Htio je otac da ja upravljam, a on da vu e.

Ne ide. Nekoliko puta amac se umalo nije potopio. Vu em sve pravilnije. Ne trzam. Samo da ne nagazim na zmiju. Na ovoj lijevoj strani Save, okrenutoj prema suncu, ima ih mnogo. A ja ne volim zmije. Pio sam puno vode. Ne vrijedi. Opet se uvuku i prestrave me. A nikada ni jednu nisam ubio. Eno ga. Siknu kroz travu. I on se mene prepao. Ovaj put kojim ja sada gazim zvao se la arski put.

Uz Savu tada nije bilo vrbaka. Sasijecali su vrbe i topole, i. I gdje je sada taj konj? I mi gore imamo jednog konja. Arifov je. On nikad nije vukao la u. Ne da. Uzaludno smo se cijelo ljeto zaskakivali na njegova povijena le a. Padali smo svi od reda. Na primer, u Kini, ne postoji obavezni sertifikat za medicinske interpretatore od Interpretatori koji rade u Zdravstvenim ustanovama se mogu smatrati da pripadaju Savezu Zdravstvenih Profesionalaca.

Evropski forum interpretatora znakovnog jezika efsli je glavna orgranizacija iterpretatora znakovnog jezika u Evropi. Druge institucije Evropske Unije Evropski parlament i Evropski sud pravde imaju manje interpretatora. Na drugim projektima Vikimedijina ostava.

Idite na vrh. Bassnett, Translation studies. Arhivirano iz originala PDF na datum Pristupljeno Arhivirano iz originala na datum

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