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Ludwig Meier. Pieter van Dokkum. George Wilson Burn. Tellef Davidson. Aleksandro Brzostowski. John Pollen. Auguste Forel. Victor Fraitot. Emanuel Reicher. Eduard Elten. Edward Croegaert. Magnus Nordensvan. Joseph Silbernik. Amatus van der Biest-Andelhof. Ebenezer Howard. Rosa Junck. Carlos Cortezo. Charles Richet. Federico Villarreal. Henri Sentis.
Daniel Ozro Smith Lowell. Edwin Davis French. Maria Milsom. Eliza Ann Lawrence. George Cunningham. Daniel Henry Lambert. Daniel Eyquem. Jacint Barrera i Arenas. Wilhelm Ernst Dietl. Leonardo Torres Quevedo. John Charles O'Connor. Edouard Breon. Zsigmond Simonyi. Henri-Alexandre Deslandres. Albert Gallois. Roman Brandt. Paro Megahy. Rudolf Libek. Marie Larroche. Hilma Hall. Henri Vallienne. Pjotr Diakonov. John H. Etelvina Silva. Pierre Ernest Matton. Paul Matthews.
Nakamura Kiyoo. William Henry Garbutt. Walter A. Ilja Ostrovskij. Adam Zakrzewski. Giovanni Peterlongo. Wolfgang Pezlederer. Joan Corrales i Miralles. Joseph Rhodes. Adolf Macho. Alfred Rhodes Marriott. Herman Boucon. John Mabon Warden. Samuel D. Gottlob Heinrich Schauerhammer. Firmin Durieux. George Gordon. Alessandro Mazzolini. Julius Patzelt. George Sommerville Robinson. Antoni Grabowski. John Beveridge. Ann E. Aleksander Pafomov.
Josefine Finholt. Albert Offret. Odo Bujwid. Charles Frederic Hayes. Dirk Frans Romein. Josef Eiselt. Roland Bonaparte. Alfred Griffin. Carlo Cordero de Montezemolo. Jan Willem Sevenhuijsen. Honoratus Bonnevie. Karel Emanuel Macan. Franciszek Ender. Eduard Mybs. John Buchanan. Alfons Sabadell. Karl Briegleb. Herbert William Southcombe.
Herbert F. Frederick William Alexander. Georg Arnhold. Gaston Moch. Josef Schamanek. Paul Mieille. Alfred Michaux. Moritz Klemm. Johannes Petrus Leonardus Niesten. Wilhelm Wetekamp. Marcelle Fauvart-Bastoul. Maurice Rollet de l'Isle. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof. Frederic Cros. Horace Huet. Lejzer Zamenhof. Pierre Beauchemin. Hieronim Wierzchowski. Hieronimo Wierzchowski-Korczak. Emmanuel Robert. Adolf Schmidt. Paul Gottfried Christaller. William Harvey. Albert Esselin. Otto W.
Carl Lindhagen. Enrique Legrand. Axel Fredrik Runstedt. John Henry Hill. Francesco Barberi. Marcelle Tiard. Siegfried Lederer. Celestin Rousseau. William Morrison. Robert Robertson. Leo Wiener. Vasilij Devjatnin. George Ledger. Maurice Duchochois. Alfred Edward Wackrill. Silvio Gesell. Ivan Shishmanov.
Bulgarian  esperanto germano. Albert Steche. Anna Sharapova. Giovan Battista Puccinelli. Fabian Zamenhof. Herbert Moy Thomas. Jean Julia. Miquel Cases Martin. John Ellis. Charles Lemaire. Ernest Archdeacon. Charles Hill Fessenden. Martina Kramers. Vicente Alonso Sanz. Klara Zamenhof. Henriko Haas. Karl Haas. Ferdinand Hartwich. Albert Edward Smith. Samuel Meyer. Nikolaj Kabanov. George Brinton McClellan Harvey. Futabatei Shimei. Florence Harriet Hanbury. Richard Schumann. Carl Winberg.
Albert Mair. Robert Cecil. Henri Muffang. Jaan Tenisson. Alfred Hermann Fried. Stanislav Schulhof. Per Ahlberg. George William Roome. Ernest Deligny. Heinrich August Luyken. Nicholas Marr. Abram Kofman. Nuno Baena. Mary Luplau. Emil Stark. Albert Saint-Martin. Gustaf Henrik Lundquist. Mariano Mojado. Anna Hradil. James G. Louisa Frederica Adela Schafer. Lucien Cornet. Leo Belmont. Carlos Gagini. Aleksandr Sakharov. Jan Slavenburg. Antoon Jozef Witteryck.
Hendrik Coenraad Mees. Edward Alfred Millidge. Vladimir Szmurlo. Maurice Briquet. Alexander Taussig. Hendrik Bulthuis. Hermann Stahlberg. Albert Edward Styler. Nikolaj Evstifejev. William Bailey. Kunitaro Takahashi. Yutaro Iida. Angelo Filippetti. Richard H. Charles Lambert. Achille Tellini. Dreves Uitterdijk. Henri Maresquelle. Carlo Bourlet. Takakusu Junjiro.
John William Pickard. Henri de Coppet. Charles Dirac. Johannes Dietterle. Mary Gillett. Karin Thilander. Camille Aymonier. Camille Duvaux. Nikolaj Kazi-Girej. Charles Arthur Fairman. Luigi Giambene. John Barrett. Alphonse Carles. Fred Leslie Wharff. Antonio Guinart. Fritz Kraner. Gustaf Henrik Backman. Jan Rambousek. Reinhold Schmidt. Henriette Zapater. Johan Helsing. Medeiros e Albuquerque. Eduard Becker. James Rodger. Kazimiera Bujwidowa. Jean Hautstont. Curt Walther.
Cai Yuanpei. Jeanne Zabilon d'her Ranfaing. Sven Erik Krikortz. Watson Senior. Jean Baron. Alexander Nedoshivin. Alice Roux. Lucien Decourt. James Connolly. Jean Borel. Antal Zsigmond. Anakreon Stamatiadis. Emma L. Carl Walter. Felix Zamenhof. Charles Stuart-Menteth. George Edward Luckman Gauntlett. Asajiro Oka. Max Talmey. Nikifor Zenin. Alice-Leontine Farges. Ralph Crowley. George William Wight. Josef F. Jakob Schmid. Wigbertus van Zon. Henry Thomas Bailey. Gabriel Robin. Manuel Amador Terreros.
Friedrich Wilhelm Foerster. Astrid Rybo. Werner Anttila. Jacques Camescasse. Parley Parker Christensen. Patrick Parker. Shiba Teikichi. William Main Page. Otto Hugo Roesel. Louis Bastien. John Valentin Lundgren. Giorgi Ciklauri. Vladimir Dmitriev. Winifred Sackville Stoner. Vladimir Gernet. Ernst Kliemke. Frans Swagers. John Fogg Twombly. Friedrich Pillath.
Karl Otto Svanbom. Raoul Bricard. Rudolf Kaftan. Arthur Llewelyn Curry. Jules Meysmans. Siegfried Eduard Spielmann. John Edgar McFadyen. Josep Pratdesaba i Portabella. Leon Beaumel. James Ferdinand Morton, Jr. Josef Krumpholc. Ellen Kate Limouzin. Konstantyn Dominik.
Paul Nyssens. Eduard Weinfurter. Julien Vanverts. Edith Alleyne Sinnotte. William Brown. Vladimir Majnov. Toshihiko Sakai. Georges Bayol. Franz Wollmann. Arthur Sohrmann. Jeanne Flourens. Onisaburo Deguchi. Henryk Zamenhof. Friedrich Karl Stengel. Bartomeu Font Cantallops. Alberto Couto Fernandes. Marc Pujo. Adolf Bischitzky. Jakob Hechtl. Fjodor Postnikov. Vitold Konstantinovich Tenisov. Leopold Ellerbeck. Antonin Gosset. Teresa Rosell i Capdevila.
Kazimierz Bein. Nils Alfred Nordlund. Lambert Poell. Henry William Hetzel. Michele Arabeno. John Merchant. Martha Root. Walter Currie. Wijtze Nutters. Thomas Grahame Bailey. Karl Myslik. Julius Hanauer. Mary L. Karl Gasperini. Alberto Alessio. Valdemar Langlet. Zabelle C. Lingua armenie anglese francese italiano germano russo svedese esperanto. Arturo Ghezzo. Giorgi Abashidze. Gustau Galceran Ferrer. Viggo Ritzau. Marcel Merckens. Lingua chec esperanto. Ludovic-Alexandre le Cornec. Vilhelm Vaher.
Peter Theodor Justesen. Karl Wallon. Oscar Van Schoor. Alphonse Mistler. Charles Verax. Fernando Soler Valls. Egon Mosche. Christian Petersen Heilskov. Georg Mahn. Henri Barbusse. Vilmos Austerlitz. Alojz Kremer. Emil Wanitsek. Hollywood continues to draw fresh blood from the thriving Asian horror market, remaking Japanese hits, such as Ringu and The Grudge , and enticing their directors—Hideo Nakata and Takashi Shimizu respectively—to the US.
Digital downloads Today the industry is facing its next great challenge: the internet. Set in Los Angeles, it highlights racial tensions and the assumptions strangers make about each other. It takes many creative, technical, publicity, and distribution talents to take a movie from an idea to the screen.
The Godfather had crews across several continents, while Gone With the Wind had multiple crews in the studio. The basic stages of making a movie remain the same whatever the size of the budget or the cast. The process begins with preproduction, then moves through production, and post-production.
Below-the-line players generally include the production department, cinematographers, composers, editors, costume designers, production designers, stuntpeople, and sound crew. Their costs are generally lower and more predictable. This stage involves the editor, sound editor, composer, and special effects crew. Anecdotes about how actors, directors, producers, and screenwriters collaborate are legion. Equally intricate is the work of technical staff, such as the costume designers who, for example, might have to design authentic Roman Empire-era clothes, as for Gladiator Dazzling special effects combine computer-generated images and old-fashioned physical trickery to enliven a story of a giant gorilla or a galaxy far, far away.
After a movie is made, it has to reach the viewer. Director Nicholas Ray left discusses a project with screenwriter Philip Yordan. They worked together on Johnny Guitar in Some ideas get the go-ahead but fail in execution, such as the remake of Sabrina From the beginning, the producer is central to the making of the movie.
He may be a forceful, creative type or he may be part of a group of investors who has a more distant relationship with the industry but knows the star. Traditionally, however, a producer is responsible for securing the money to make the movie. In most cases, the money for a movie comes from the studio executives. Like producers, the studio executives vary in the scope of their power.
These include discussing the concept and script, historical research, storyboarding, and casting. At this stage, a screenwriter also produces a draft of the script. The screenwriter is usually known to the producers or executives, having worked with them in the past, or through experience on similar types of projects. Actors may also be involved at the development stage.
Another situation in which this may be the case is if the actor is the director himself such as Clint Eastwood or Mel Gibson. Less well-known actors are usually signed up during this stage. This is a marked-up script by Harold Pinter for The Servant Storyboards help the director visualize each scene—these are from The Wizard of Oz Here, the crane allows for a panoramic view of the set. Depending on his level of involvement, the producer may also be responsible for hiring the crew, which includes a director of photography, a production designer, a costume designer, a composer, and an editor.
He may also be involved in setting up a shooting schedule and budget, and choosing locations. Generally, the location scout searches for the best locations for the movie. The agents and managers then submit the names of clients who might be right for the part. Following auditions and hiring, the casting director then negotiates the contract with the actor. Meanwhile, the cinematography, production design, and editing components of the movie will be set up.
The DP may also confer with the production designer and crew to make sure that the cameras can be accommodated in the set design. During post-production, the editor will put it all together according to the storyline. It occurs after pre-production is completed and includes the crafts of acting, cinematography, costume design, directing, lighting, and design.
The camera operator runs the camera; the electrical crew is under the guidance of the gaffer or chief electrician. In all phases of movie production, the DP is a craftsperson and an artist. A member of the art department paints a background for an imaginary, historical, or inaccessible location. This department works under the production designer. Production design The physical world to be photographed in a movie is created by the production designer.
He or she acts as an architect, decorator, and visionary to create everything from elaborate sets to small props that may become totemic items, like the light sabers of Star Wars He or she applies this background to research the historical period of the movie and the material world of its inhabitants, or to realize an imaginary culture, which can range from the look of an Elizabethan theater in Shakespeare in Love to the futuristic world of Gattaca Active in both the pre-production and production stages, the production designer works with the director and producer to create sketches of sets.
Implementing these ideas requires adherance to budgets, time constraints, and the vision of the director. It also requires a team, known as the art department, including the art director, set designer, set decorator, scenic artist, property master, construction coordinator, and landscaper. Acting Once signed, actors prepare for their roles.
But nearly all serious actors have prepared beforehand through acting training. Internationally, drama schools abound. So, Tom Hanks will doubtless continue to represent the decent everyman, while Julia Roberts is likely to remain the accessible, practical everywoman. Film actor in action Film is a medium that picks up small nuances in expression; the stage represents the character through movement and gesture.
On the set, actors endure challenges and advantages unique to the form. Unlike the stage, the set offers no live audience for reaction and support; but it does allow the actor to redo a line or scene he or she is not happy with. In the US, actors are members of the Screen Actors Guild, which has established a minimum payment for its actors. More established or in-demand actors get salaries far beyond scale, but for many actors, the rate is scale plus ten ten percent for the agent.
Stunt performers The players who substitute for the main actors and perform acts involving risk are the stunt performers. They are chosen for their general resemblance to the star and are dressed to match him or her.
Although some actors do at least some of their own stunts, stunt doubles replace actors when the stunt is considered too dangerous for Jackie Chan is renowned for doing his own stunts, as seen here in Rush Hour Other examples of his stuntwork include Rumble in the Bronx and the early masterpiece, Drunken Master If a stunt is considered too dangerous for a human being, the effects are done by digital imagery and long-established camera tricks.
Some of them are so accomplished that they receive industry accolades. Perhaps the most honored was Western and action movie stuntman Yakima Canutt — , who appeared in Stagecoach , and who received a special Academy Award for his extraordinary stuntwork in While digital effects and animatronics can be used to create an animal, or at least place it where the director wants it to be, real animals are still effective additions to many movies, particularly family-oriented ones.
To circumvent some of the troubles of dealing with animals, multiple look-alike animals are sometimes used, each featuring in a different set of scenes. An animal may also be made to perform by a trainer dangling food before its eyes. Children are also big draws for the movie-goer seeking familiarity. On the set, child actors pose many of the same challenges as animals. Hence, multiple child actors are chosen for a role such as twins or triplets in a movie calling for a baby , and they perform for only limited periods.
In most countries, child labor laws regulate how long child actors may remain on the set. These components appear on separate tracks, recorded separately, but run together in the movie. This is when most of the dialogue and some sound effects are recorded on the set. The dialogue takes priority over background sounds, since the latter can always be dubbed in later.
A guide track is used to dub dialogue and background sounds if necessary. The many tasks involved in creating the sound mix are carried out by the sound crew. Other members of the sound crew include the sound recorder, boom operator, cablemen, and playback operators. The costume designer works closely with the director, cinematographer, and production designer to create a wardrobe. Wardrobe pieces that can be purchased off-thepeg from a shop may be obtained by the stylist.
Many top costume designers have become known for the looks they create, the actors they have dressed, or the stories they generate. Even more than the costume designer, the make-up artist develops a close relationship with the actor. The work is redone at least once a day and must remain consistent throughout shooting. Members of the make-up team include the make-up artist and his or her assistant.
There has been a separate category for make-up in the Academy Awards since Special effects Beyond the ability of the stuntperson or costume designer lies special effects. In many cases, special effects are used to reduce costs. Creature make-up typically requires several hours daily for application and removal of latex appliances. While a physical effect may be simple, such as using an unseen rope to move or knock over a prop, special effects today are usually much more complicated.
Visual effect techniques include computergenerated imagery CGI , digital compositing, digital matte paintings, green screen technology, miniatures, morphing, motion-capture, rotoscopes, and traveling mattes. Mechanical effects include animatronic puppets, explosions, full-scale mock-ups, rain and snow machines, squibs that replicate bloody bullet hits, and wires attached to actors. A complicated FX sequence may include a variety of visual and mechanical effects.
Technological advances The technology for special effects is changing so rapidly that many long-standing practices, such as brush-and-canvas matte paintings, King Kong uses green screen technology inset to allow Naomi Watts to interact with Kong. Some digital effects, such as morphing a computer-generated effect in which one image is transformed into another , have been around so long that they are almost considered old-fashioned nowadays.
Motion-capture can be blended with digital animation to create realistic virtual creatures, such as the giant gorilla in King Kong Green screens are green fabric backgrounds positioned behind actors that allow CGI to be integrated into the scene. The bulk of the editing is done during post-production. However, the individual shots are not completely determined at this stage. Among the tasks at this stage is the correction of density and color balance.
This runs to the length that the director, editor, and producer have agreed on. Films are transferred to videotape and digital format, and are computer coded; this allows scenes to be edited on screen. Post-production sound The sound mixing desk is where the various tracks of human dialogue, sound effects, and music are combined to create an original to transfer to the film negative. First, the sound editor, or sound effects editor, works with the director and editor to create the soundtracks.
Charlie Chaplin is seen editing a film. He also wrote, directed, and acted in his films in a year career. It is then read as synchronized sound when it is sent through the loudspeakers during an audience showing. Release prints Color testing follows the making of the original negative. Distribution and exhibition Once a movie is completed, the distributor gets it to movie theaters and exhibitors make sure that it is shown.
Other aspects of publicity include press kits and press releases to the media, and booking stars for media interviews and general visibility. After a few weeks or if the movie is a blockbuster or an Academy Award winner months, attendance will diminish. There is also revenue to come from DVD and Blu-ray disc sales, internet downloads, and the licensing to a variety of TV rights, including pay-per-view, premium cable channels, basic cable channels, and terrestrial television. Neither does advance audience interest.
They pre-screen the movie and tell the audience whether they believe it is worth the price of admission. Despite the critics, however, the strongest force for the popularity of a movie is the audience. Audiences are affected by timing: Jaws, for example, worked well as a summer blockbuster.
Finally, the time has to be right culturally: the Western Brokeback Mountain, about gay ranch hands, was very successful when released in , but 20 years ago, it may have been only an arthouse picture. A general view of the 81st Academy Awards held at the Kodak Theatre. In recent years, award ceremonies have set fashion trends, as well as invigorating box office takings.
The concept of genre really began during the Hollywood studio period. Each studio specialized in a particular genre: Universal horror , Warner Bros. However, it was with the stars that the public most associated certain types of picture: James Cagney, Edward G. Performers were so closely linked with certain genres that it became an event when they departed from the norm.
There are still directors who specialize in certain genres: John Hughes in teen movies; Woody Allen in comedy; John Woo in action; and Wes Craven in horror. The style is associated with non-stop action—dramatic chases, shoot-outs, and explosions—often centered around a male hero struggling against terrible odds. It was in the s that the action-adventure genre became established.
The film was a huge hit for Warner Bros. Universe, Arnold Schwarzenegger. Pres action heroes were far more moral, and their code was to kill only in self-defense. Gender roles Traditionally, action-adventure movies were aimed mostly at male audiences in their teens to mids.
From the simplest drawing by hand, to images created using the most up-to-date digital technology, the genre has always aimed to appeal to the widest possible age range. Gene Kelly dances with Tom and Jerry in Anchors Aweigh , a film that combines animation with live action. In , a Belgian, Joseph Plateau, invented a piece of equipment that produced a moving picture from a series of drawings.
The action was viewed through slits on a revolving disk. Stuart Blackton. At Warner Bros. In reaction to the naturalistic graphic style and sentimentality of Disney, UPA developed freer, more economical, contemporary art styles. Among their most famous creations was Mr. All this inventive cartoon work was halted with the proliferation of television, when studios began to devote their output almost entirely to low-budget, mass-produced cartoons.
Here, the elderly song-anddance team make a comeback. Animation abroad While the US was developing animation, other countries were also experimenting with the genre. However, it was in the s that British animation was really put on the map by Aardman Animations with their plasticine characters Wallace and Gromit. Plasticine buddies— cheese-loving Wallace and his faithful dog Gromit—were the Oscar-winning creations of Nick Park and Aardman Animations. New talent The green ogre and the talkative donkey were voiced by Mike Myers and Eddie Murphy, respectively, in the computer-animated Shrek , which won the first Oscar for Best Animated Feature.
A new golden age of animation dawned at the beginning of the 21st century, leading to the creation of an Oscar for the Best Animated Feature. Collages of fragmentary images, complex allusions, and multiple points of view replaced logical explanation of meaning. Yet there are characteristics that mark the biopic out as a genre of its own. In a conventional biopic, the protagonist falls from the height of fame and then goes on to make a triumphant comeback.
It was German-born William Dieterle who set the pattern with numerous biopics. Since then, actors have employed many different ways to make us laugh. Comedy is one of the oldest theatrical genres. The four giants of American silent comedy— Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd, and Harry Langdon—all emerged from one- or two-reelers to make features in the s. The Keystone Kops, a famous slapstick troupe, pose for the camera in Many famous faces started their careers in the Kops, including Fatty Arbuckle far right.
The birth of the wisecrack The leading exponent of the wisecracking comedies that inevitably came with the talkies was the bibulous irascible, raspy-voiced W. Fields co-starred with Mae West in My Little Chickadee , a spoof Western, in which they exploited their unique comic personae. West responded by resorting to doubleentendre to make her comedy a little less direct. Four of the brothers— Groucho, Harpo, Chico, and Zeppo—had been in vaudeville since childhood, and by the s, had become one of the most popular theatrical acts in the US.
Uninhibited and irrepressible, they conveyed a sense of spontaneity as they disrupted everything around them with their unique brand of surreal, madcap humor. Screwball comedy Screwball comedy was a unique creation of Hollywood in the s. Its main elements were irreverent humor, fast-paced action and dialogue, and eccentric characters—generally the idle rich. Ealing comedy Long before British comedies became internationally popular in the s, Britain had made the delightful Ealing comedies from the s to the s.
In , The Ladykillers was remade by the Coen brothers. Tropez, which was transplanted to Miami in the remake, The Birdcage Technicolor and costume dramas were made for each other, but the marriage was only consummated in with Gone With the Wind.
In one scene, Davis arrives at a ball—at which unmarried girls traditionally wear white—dressed in a scarlet gown, to scandalize the assembled company. In the final scene of The Wicker Man , police sergeant Howie, played by Edward Woodward, is dragged inside the wicker statue of a man and set on fire, as a ritual sacrifice.
The poster for Attack of the 50ft. Woman shows Allison Hayes turned into a giant; she wreaks havoc and eventually crushes her cheating husband to death. Wood has gathered a cult following. It became a camp hit, especially among the pot-smoking youth—the very people it had aimed to alarm.
Woman Wood, US, Faster, Pussycat! The success of Airport —in which an airliner comes under a bomb threat—spawned three sequels and the spoof Airplane! The genre faded after Allen followed his triumphs with the risible The Swarm , in which Michael Caine battles killer bees, and Beyond The Poseidon Adventure , featuring Caine again, now trying to loot the ship.
These were created from newsreel sequences to which he added slow or reverse motion, animation, texts, and still photographs. The future directors of King Kong , Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Social comment In Western Europe and the US, documentaries highlighted social and environmental problems. Firstly, they had become too closely associated with wartime propaganda, and secondly, television documentaries were gaining prominence.
It took more than 15 years for the crisis to pass. Pennebaker, and the Maysles brothers, Albert and David. March of the Penguins , a nature documentary from France, portrays the annual journey of emperor penguins across Antarctica. He is seen here with the impish Jojo. Epic movies typically feature vast panoramas, with hundreds of extras, and are likely to be historical or Biblical stories containing spectacular scenes.
Its great success in the US inspired D. However, it was Cecil B. In the celebrated minute chariot race in Ben-Hur , 8, extras watched Charlton Heston in the title role, on an acre set. He wanted to equate Nero with modern dictators. It was the most expensive Japanese movie of the time. Yet studios were still willing to invest in epics. The style may have originated in Europe, but the subject matter was found in urban America and was inspired by hard-boiled crime writers, including James M.
Chandler also co-wrote the script for Double Indemnity, the archetypal noir, in which an insurance salesman Fred MacMurray is led into fraud and murder by the amoral and seductive Barbara Stanwyck. Film noir developed during and after World War II, in the context of post-war anxiety and cynicism. The almost exclusively male antiheroes of the genre, many of whom were private eyes, shared this malaise. They were disillusioned loners roaming through dark alleyways, rundown hotels, cheerless bars, and gaudy nightclubs.
The detectives, the police, and the villains were all as corrupt and mercenary as each other. Some years later, a number of post- and neonoirs appeared in the US. Mabuse The Gambler , about a master criminal who tries to take over the world, portended the coming of Hitler. New realism It was the cycle of gangster movies produced by Warner Bros. Some were based on real incidents and living hoodlums. Robinson, was just the beginning of a Hollywood crime wave—50 gangster movies were made in alone.
Little Caesar made Robinson a star. One of the great classics of the genre, Scarface starred Paul Muni as a brutish, childish, and arrogant racketeer. Brian De Palma directed a violent remake in Cagney and Robinson changed sides, though the movies were still about gangsters, and no less violent.
His ruthlessness impresses small-time crook Ray Liotta left. Scorsese went on to make GoodFellas , Casino , and Gangs of New York ; the last had street gang warfare in 19th-century New York as its subject. Both recalled early Warner Bros. The striking make-up was devised by Jack Pierce. The high watermark of Hollywood horror was the s. Jekyll and Mr.
Classic chillers Browning had previously made eight horror movies with Lon Chaney. During the s, the real horrors of World War II made monster movies seem innocuous in comparison. Romero, whose horror movies were full of slavering zombies, from Night of the Living Dead to Land of the Dead The Blair Witch Project showed what could be achieved with a tiny budget. The atmosphere and lighting of the movie contributed greatly to its disturbing tone.
Jackie Chan, a fan of both Buster Keaton and Bruce Lee, successfully combines physical comedy with action. The plots are usually simple affairs of good versus evil. It was given the Hollywood treatment and made a fortune for Warner Bros. From the s, a plethora of martial arts movies appeared, such as John G. Bruce Lee prepares for action in Enter the Dragon , which was the first Americanproduced martial arts film.
It made a legend of Lee and inspired a generation of filmmakers. The genre continued successfully into the s and s, with a slightly more feminist slant. Goulding, at Warner Bros. Stahl pulled out all the stops for Leave Her to Heaven , a lurid tale of a woman Gene Tierney whose jealousy ruins all those around her.
Many of these melodramas depended on the leading lady. Their music-theater background was opera and operetta. Paris was the glittering backdrop of three musicals that German-born Ernst Lubitsch made for Paramount—the most European of the studios— which starred Jeanette MacDonald and Maurice Chevalier. The Love Parade , with its lavish settings, songs integrated into the scenario, and sexual innuendo, set a pattern for screen operettas.
Musicals could also circumvent censorship more easily than other genres. The studio system of the s,s, and s enabled these lavish dreams to take shape. Each major studio stamped Coming from the American vaudeville tradition, The Broadway Melody pioneered the backstage musical, which was to dominate the genre, on and off, for decades to come.
The plots of backstage musicals revolved around the problems of putting on a show. Lucille Ball, bedecked in plumes of feathers, cracks a whip at a posse of girls dressed as black cats, performing a feline dance in Ziegfeld Follies He remains unsurpassed in invention, virtuosity, and elegance. Although he tried various cinematic forms, they never hindered the purity of his dancing, either solo or with his many dancing partners, the most famous of whom was Ginger Rogers.
As a dancer, choreographer, and director, Gene Kelly became one of the most creative forces in the s, the heyday of the musical. He experimented with slow motion, multiple images, animation, and trick photography to extend the appeal of dancing. In these features, song, dance, and music no longer punctuated the story, but actually worked to advance the plot.
Screen adaptations In the early days of the musical, studios lavished fortunes on celluloid versions of Broadway shows in the hope of repeating their success, but these bore little resemblance to the stage originals. Guys and Dolls , Oklahoma! Until the mids, British musicals were mostly genteel affairs that had little impact outside the UK. Sadly, musicals written directly for the screen, which made it a cinematic genre independent of the theater, have become almost obsolete.
Pabst, focuses on the lives of four World War I soldiers. The film highlights the reality of life at the front. Between the wars, many British documentaries, such as Housing Problems , explored social evils. Film is and must be revolutionary action in itself. His London Can Take It! The film was banned by the Nazis. Fantasy adventures go beyond the limitations of our minds to an imagined, but not always preferable, world.
Fairbanks climbs a magic rope, braves the Valley of Monsters, and sails over rooftops on a magic carpet. However, there were three superlative adaptations of H. The screenplay by Arthur C. Clarke was adapted from one of his own short stories. Many of the novels and short stories of Philip K.
With Star Wars , the art of special effects entered a new age. Steven Spielberg made magic with Jurassic Park , in which a wealthy entrepreneur secretly builds a theme park on a remote island, featuring living dinosaurs created from prehistoric DNA. James Cameron effectively used CGI in immersive 3-D technology to transport the audience to Pandora, an exotic alien world, in his Oscar-winning movie Avatar It was shown in movie theaters in weekly instalments and each chapter ended on a cliffhanger.
It is the only obsolete cinematic genre, though some of its features are evident in television soap operas and mini-series. She played the title character and endured all sorts of indignities from villains, such as being tied to a railroad line. His greatest triumph was Les Vampires —16 , which had a dreamlike quality admired by general public and surrealists alike.
In Germany, Fritz Lang made his reputation with The Spiders —20 , featuring the use of mirrors, hypnosis, underground chambers, and arch criminals. In the US, 28 serials were made in alone. With the coming of sound, the main studios started producing serials of better quality. Crabbe also starred in Buck Rogers Conquers the Universe In the s, mainly due to the advent of television, the production of serials began to diminish.
The Western serial Blazing the Overland Trail was the last ever produced. Weissmuller, a former US Olympic swimming champion, went on to make 19 Tarzan movies over the next 16 years. No in , making it the longest continuing series in the English language. The ingredients of the Bond recipe remain virtually unchanged to this date. However, in terms of numbers, the Japanese series Zatoichi — remains unbeaten.
Often set in a school, these movies invariably showed teens trying to attract the opposite sex and escape adult control. An example was the extremely popular Andy Hardy series of the s and early s, which starred Mickey Rooney as a happy-go-lucky adolescent getting into scrapes. Although most teen stars fade from view as they and their fans mature, a few have gone on to productive careers, including Demi Moore, Rob Lowe, and James Spader.
Actors such as Drew Barrymore and Scarlett Johansson have established themselves as true 21st-century stars. However, Miley Cyrus is already beating a path for the next generation This is usually a mystery, involving spies or terrorists, in which the protagonist is the pursued or the pursuer, attempting to solve a crime or prevent a disaster.
Dealing with a suicide, it is famous for its four-stride sequence: from beach to grass to mud to sidewalk to rug. In the early s, younger directors like Stan Brakhage emerged, working in a similar mode.
The mode for campness was exploited by Andy Warhol in movies such as Blow Job The film rejects the traditional narrative structure in favor of a dream logic. Often, they take an anti-war stance, but equally, they can be made to stir up popular support and even serve as propaganda.
In Germany itself, G. Joe concentrated on the fatigue and anxiety that the common soldier suffered. The heroics were left to Errol Flynn and John Wayne, who were depicted winning the war almost single-handedly. This was also the period that witnessed the virtual extermination of the buffalo and of the majority of the indigenous Native American tribes.
However, some Westerns go back to the time of the colonial era or forward to the midth century. The geographical location is usually west of the Mississippi river, north of the Rio Grande river, and south toward the border with Mexico.
Among the iconic elements are remote forts and vast ranches, and the small-town saloon, jail, and main street—where the inevitable showdown between hero and villain takes place. However, many of the best Westerns also have a psychological complexity that stretches beyond the simplistic good versus evil premise, toward the dimensions of Greek tragedy.
Other stars followed, the most famous being W. Hart and Tom Mix. Also in the early s, D. The next year, Cecil B. Its success led to an increase in the production of Westerns, and allowed John Ford to make the far superior and longer The Iron Horse A decade later, this was down to There are several explanations for this decline: the increase in Western television series, which replaced the many B-Western features produced for movie theaters; the fact that the ideology that formed the Western was becoming outmoded in the new, permissive society; and the rise of the more violent Spaghetti Westerns, which brought stardom for Clint Eastwood.
His patience paid off when it won seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture. In a modern twist to the genre, the award-winning Brokeback Mountain features a ranch hand and a cowboy in love. The omission of countries, such as the Netherlands and some from Southeast Asia, is addressed in this introduction. In the s, the general public went to see silent movies from many parts of the world.
In the last few decades, it has gradually become recognized that entertainment is not the preserve of Hollywood. Dutch director Paul Verhoeven made successful erotic thrillers, such as Spetters and The Fourth Man , in his homeland, before crossing the Atlantic to make major hits such as RoboCop , Total Recall , and Basic Instinct Most conspicuous are the Dardenne brothers, Jean-Pierre born and Luc born , whose international reputation has grown over the years with such realistic dramas as The Promise , Rosetta , The Son , and The Child Recent years have seen an increase in big-budget hits seen by Western audiences.
It was only with the emergence of director Youssef Chahine that Egyptian cinema began to be taken seriously internationally. He would alternate between big-budget productions, such as Alexandria… Why? Under the years of apartheid, South Africa produced very little of worth.
Free Zone stars Natalie Portman as an American woman in Jordan trying to establish her identity in the dramatic conditions of the country. In Lebanon, before the long civil war started in , movie theater attendance was the highest in the Arab world though the country produced few features of its own. Amos Gitai, the Israeli director best known internationally, made Free Zone , in which three women—an American, an Israeli, and a Palestinian—become traveling companions in a remote area of Jordan.
The controversial Foreign Film Academy Award nominee, Paradise Now traces 24 hours in the lives of two Palestinian suicide-bombers. This minutely observed study of village life and its sparse style presaged later Iranian movies. As a result of this support, new directors such as Mohsen Makhmalbaf and Abbas Kiarostami emerged with a number of cinematic masterpieces. Kanal , a film about the Warsaw uprising, shows how Polish partisans were pursued and trapped in the sewers by Nazi soldiers.
It follows several families, from different social classes in pre-war Warsaw, whose lives are changed by the tragic events of the period. This absurdist drama of sexual rivalry and the generation gap received an Oscar nomination and brought Polanski immediate fame.
In , the Barrandov studios, one of the best equipped in Europe, opened in Prague. During the war, the Germans took it over, which interrupted any advance in the industry. The Russian invasion of ended this exciting period of activity.
Underground , by celebrated Bosnian director Emir Kusturica, is an epic portrait of Yugoslavia from to the present. This anti-war drama had an understated quality, in contrast to earlier propaganda epics. Michael Cacoyannis reached the peak of his popularity with Zorba the Greek ; and since the s, Theo Angelopoulos has achieved iconic status.
Yol shows Turkey through the eyes of five prisoners. Despite occasional masterpieces, it would be many years before the country re-emerged to take its place among the great cinematic nations. Things started to change in as the economy improved. West in the Land of the Bolsheviks A gang of thieves is surprised by Mr. West and his faithful cowboy aide in The Extraordinary Adventures of Mr.
There was little of cinematic interest in preRevolution Russia as it was impossible to deal with contemporary issues under strict Tsarist censorship. This reached its peak in The Battleship Potemkin , with its memorable Odessa Steps sequence see p.
Petersburg , while Dovzhenko made Earth , a pastoral symphony dedicated to his native Ukraine. Barnet directed a number of delightfully fresh satirical comedies such as The Girl with the Hatbox and The House on Trubnaya Tragically, this great period of Russian experimentation came to an end as Stalin tightened his grip. Soviet art had to be optimistic, understandable, and loved by the masses. Degermark won Best Actress at Cannes for her role. Swedish film In Sweden, the Svenska Bio studio was founded in , and two years later, Charles Magnusson joined as production manager.
Producer David O. However, Ingmar Bergman continued to cast his shadow. Following his classics of the s, notably The Seventh Seal see p. It tells the story of a group of Soviet rock musicians. Films from the Baltic countries that were emerging from Soviet domination, tentatively began to be recognized abroad after A creative explosion The s onward have been a time of great creativity in the Nordic countries. In The Golem , the first of several versions of the old Jewish legend, the clay monster Paul Wegener contemplates his victim.
This permeation took place mainly between and , but also before and after that period. Caligari , see p. Wegener also played the role of the monster in The Golem , which he co-directed with Henrik Galeen. Among the directors who emerged at this time were F. Mabuse were also produced during this period. The latter, made as Hitler seized power, had the mad villain expressing sentiments too close for Nazi comfort.
One of the few movies to survive the period was The Adventures of Baron Munchausen , an elaborate fantasy, superbly photographed in Agfacolor. It was produced to celebrate the 25th anniversary of UFA studios. Early stars included legendary stage actress Sarah Bernhardt who starred in Queen Elizabeth , which was distributed successfully in the US.
After the war, the French developed it as an art form. The Prix Louis Delluc has been awarded annually since to the best French movie of the year. However, in the s, the veteran directors still dominated. There was also a literary tradition pursued by Claude Autant-Lara, who adapted Stendhal, Maupassant, and Dostoevsky to the screen. This core group of directors initially collaborated and assisted each other, helping in the development of a common and distinct use of form, style, and narrative.
They were owned by two of the largest production companies, Cines and Itala, both of which made successful costume dramas. The latter, which tells of the adventures of a Sicilian slave girl rescued by the muscular Maciste, took more than six months to shoot and contained technical innovations such as dolly and crane shots. Its success in the US inspired D. DeMille to embark on large-scale productions.
World War I and competition from the US put an end to big production spectacles, and all the studios had closed down by After the war, Italian audiences preferred escapist entertainment, such as comedies starring Toto and Alberto Sordi. Francis Roberto Rossellini, Umberto D. At the forefront of this were Giuseppe Tornatore with Cinema Paradiso , see p. All won Best Foreign Film Oscars.
During World War II, there were some excellent morale-boosting features and documentaries by Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier, the most glamorous couple in British film, are seen here in their first of three films together, Fire Over England After the war, entertainment was richly provided by the Ealing comedies see p. No A stark documentary on the poverty of peasants in a barren area of Spain, it so effectively revealed this social evil that it was promptly banned by the government.
This impressive debut feature can be read partly as an allegorical account of a country living under the shadow of an authoritarian regime. The Sea Inside Fernando Jorge Sanz , a deserter from the army during the Spanish Civil War, has to decide between three women, daughters of his best friend, in Belle Epoque It was easier and more likely that Anglophone directors, like Ted Kotcheff and Norman Jewison, could work in Hollywood.
However, two English Canadian directors, David Cronenberg and Atom Egoyan, despite having worked abroad, remain resolutely Canadian in their different idiosyncratic ways. Using this footage, with stills, and cartoons, and other devices, he became a leading maker of short agitprop documentaries in the s.
The s saw a new wave of political protest movies, and by the end of the 20th century, this had broadened into mainstream success, particularly for Argentinian and Brazilian directors. Ferreyra and starring tango singer Libertad Lamarque.
Film languished in Argentina during the Peronist era —55 , until Leopoldo Torre Nilsson emerged to become one of the most famous of all Argentinian directors. House of the Angel , The Fall , and The Hand in the Trap are studies of a bourgeoisie repressed by a suffocating Catholic Church and its effect on adolescents. In Brazil, director Hector Babenco followed his searing exposure of homeless children Pixote, with the prison drama Carandiru in Today, China has become a cinematic force to be reckoned with.
One problem was language. Others followed the government into exile in Chungking. Women , based on the classic Chinese ballet, and Two Stage Sisters Today, the most internationally celebrated Taiwanese director is Ang Lee, whose work ranges from an updated version of the Chinese wu xia samurai-style tradition of storytelling involving myth, swords and magic Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, to Hollywood hits such as Brokeback Mountain Chihwaseon traces the life of an artist Choi Min-Sik known for his addiction to alcohol and women.
Both were dark, domestic melodramas that dealt with family life and survival in the years following the end of the Korean War — Korean studios made more; however, few were seen outside the country. The leading director of the period was Shin Sang-ok, whose My Mother and Her Guest , told through the eyes of a young girl who wants her widowed mother to marry again, is considered a masterpiece. Sang-ok and his wife were kidnapped from their native South Korea in the late s and held for several years in the North to make movies for Kim Jong Il, the son of the North Korean leader.
The couple were granted asylum in the US in Vengeance , Oldboy , and Sympathy for Lady Vengeance Humanists, such as Kenji Mizoguchi, avoided government propaganda, and later he would direct twin masterpieces: Osaka Elegy and Sisters of the Gion both , stories of exploited women in contemporary Japan. The dubbing in the West was atrocious, but the special effects were spectacular.
Also frightening, but more subtle, are the supernatural crime movies directed by Kiyoshi Kurosawa no relation to Akira , such as Pulse It also boasts one of the biggest international audiences. All the roles were played by men, as women were forbidden to act during the early 20th century. However, Phalke was ruined by the introduction of sound which, in a country with 18 major languages and more than different dialects, inevitably resulted in the fragmentation of the industry and its dispersal into different language markets.
Founded in , the Bombay Talkies studio produced a number of such movies. The latter starred Nargis see p. His The Royal Hunt and And Quiet Rolls the Dawn are powerful political parables that look at the complexities of the country. Meanwhile, Bollywood movies were improving in quality, both technically and artistically.
Mel Gibson continues in his role as a vengeful futuristic cop in Mad Max 2 However, in the beginning there was little incentive to make Australian movies because of the American and British exports. Ken G. All went on to have parallel careers in Hollywood. Of the next generation, Baz Luhrmann is the most celebrated.
They know their names and even recognize their distinctive styles. People went to see movies on the strength of the stars and the subject. Gradually, certain directors became known because they made themselves visible. For instance, Cecil B. This made them recognizable, and encouraged the public to associate them with a certain genre—in this case, the epic and the thriller respectively.
This A—Z of Directors has been made as upto-date as possible. The overall aim has been to include directors whose work has been shown globally, either in commercial movie theaters or art houses. James Cameron and his crew are seen here shooting Titanic , which won 11 Academy Awards, including Best Director. In the best of them, however, there is pain lurking beneath the comic surface.
Although in the s, his work lost some of its resonance, Allen has managed to speak to a small but loyal audience of intelligent fans. In Matador , he explores the link between violence and eroticism, while in High Heels , All About My Mother , Talk to Her , and Bad Education , he shows a warmth toward his characters. Unusual by US standards, he refused to make formulaic pictures. Its iconoclasm struck a chord in a US disenchanted with the Vietnam War.
Altman liked to use the same actors, often getting performers to improvise their dialogues. This allowed him to manipulate 24 characters in Nashville , 40 in A Wedding , and a huge cast in Short Cuts and Gosford Park However, in he became the darling of Hollywood again with The Player.
In Il Deserto Rosso , Monica Vitti portrays Giuliana, a housewife who is driven mad by the industrial landscape she is surrounded by. In , he had a stroke that partially paralyzed him. His oeuvre can be seen as the autobiography of his psyche. The subject of his early work is the struggle of adolescents against an unfeeling adult world.
The transient, sun-soaked Swedish summer days, the only period of happiness before the encroachment of a winter of discontent, are captured glowingly in Summer Interlude Sommarlek, and Summer with Monika Sommaren med Monika, A succession of psychodramas followed, including the emotionally charged Cries and Whispers Viskningar och rop, However, it was Last Tango in Paris that gained him worldwide notoriety, mainly because of the loveless sex scenes between Paul, a middle-aged American Marlon Brando , and a young Frenchwoman, Jeanne Maria Schneider.
Acting can only get in the way. In , Browning signed with Universal where he made 17 movies, including two in which Chaney had small roles. In a way, Freaks is an anti-horror movie as it urges audiences not to be repulsed by the monsters.
In , he moved to Mexico and made The Young and the Damned Los Olvidados, , a powerful, detached view of a cruel world of juvenile delinquents. In The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie Le charme discret de la bourgeoisie, , the wealthy are unable to get anything to eat. Catherine Deneuve plays Severine Serizy and Michel Piccoli plays Henri Husson in Belle de Jour , in which Severine is a middle-class wife who leads a double life, playing out the fantasies of the rich.
The quintessential everyman is seen here with Clarissa Saunders Jean Arthur. Capra began his movie career as a gag writer for comedian Harry Langdon. It played for a year in New York and earned Oscar nominations for its cast of unknowns. Yet, the director had a preference for documentary-style camerawork and was obsessed with human interaction.
He mocked the complacency of bourgeois marriage in his movies, which often came with the added spice of Stephane Audran his second wife in the role of the victim or as the cause of murder. Whatever seethes under the surface of his characters—guilt, jealousy, or crime— the niceties of life go on. Large meals at home or in a restaurant became his signature scenes.
After Audran, Chabrol found, in Isabelle Huppert, the ideal actress to portray his perverse heroines with a taste for murder. Said to be his favorite film, it has a famous scene showing the poor hero reduced to eating his shoes. He became one of the most famous men in the world on the strength of over 60 silent shorts made before , and only a handful of unforgettable features. He introduced pathos and a detailed social background into more structured and ambitious farces such as Easy Street and The Immigrant A Woman of Paris starred Edna Purviance—his leading lady in almost 30 comedies—as a high-class prostitute.
Feeling that talkies would weaken his global appeal, Chaplin resisted dialogue for 13 years. Chaplin continued to experiment with styles in Monsieur Verdoux and Limelight , which contains a stunning music hall sequence. Just before the war, Clair left France to work abroad.
In , he made the successful The Wages of Fear Le Salaire de la Peur , about four men transporting dangerous nitro-glycerine in trucks. Diabolique Les Diaboliques, is a chilling tale of murder set in a school. The Conversation , made for Zoetrope, is a post-Watergate thriller about a professional eavesdropper Gene Hackman being under surveillance himself. The same thing happened in , when he was taken off Gone With the Wind.
Cukor reached his peak in the s with A Star is Born , in which his use of lighting, color, and costumes surpassed all other musicals on the CinemaScope screen. In Life With Father , he explores comedy, while his unmistakable touch is also seen in Casablanca A name that evokes the image of a larger-thanlife showman is Cecil B.
DeMille—the director who made extravagant Biblical epics. These were followed by The Ten Commandments , which parallels the Biblical story with a modern one. His only musical, Madam Satan , featured a bizarre party sequence on a Zeppelin. The milk bath in Cleopatra with Claudette Colbert highlighted his obsession with bathtub scenes. Lively, unsubtle, and patriotic celebrations of the pioneers of America, they extolled strength, perseverance, and forthright manliness.
Before he died, he was planning to make Be Prepared, an epic story of the boy-scout movement. Following Umberto D. Day of Wrath Vredens dag, , which follows a witch-hunt in 17th-century Denmark, was thought to be an allegory for occupied Denmark. The Word Ordet, , which tells of a miraculous resurrection in a rural household, is an extraordinary expression of spiritual optimism. It radiates a deep and affecting atmosphere of serenity.
After making his name as an actor in the s and s, Clint Eastwood emerged as a director in the early s, gaining admiration for his range of movies, particularly his personal Westerns. Despite strict Soviet government guidelines, he was able to set his personal stamp on the seven features he was allowed to complete. The number of shots—3,—was more than double those of Potemkin.
It was originally intended as a four-part semidocumentary on Mexican life and history, but Eisenstein overran the time and budget. The money was withdrawn, and he never got to edit the material he had shot. Taking his imagery from grand opera, Japanese kabuki theater, and Shakespearean and Russian icons, Eisenstein embarked on the three parts of Ivan the Terrible Ivan Groznyy I, II, — , but only two were completed. He also wrote, edited, photographed, and produced many of his films.
The characters tend to be frustrated by the barrenness of urban existence, sometimes turning to violence, as in The Third Generation Die Dritte Generation, , which focuses on a Berlin terrorist group. Sehnsucht der Veronika Voss, all portray women trying to survive in an ironically evoked Germany. Unlike Rossellini, however, Fellini was never a neorealist see box, p. This calculated self-portrait remains a compendium of every Fellini theme and stylistic device.
An autobiographical aspect is also evident in I Vitelloni , Roma , and Amarcord Gainsborough Studios gave him free rein on Man of Aran , and he spent a full two years off the coast of Ireland living with the Aran islanders, documenting their harsh daily lives. The Land , although incomplete, marked a departure for the director and he swapped exotic communities for more familiar landscapes.
He created a personal, recognizable world that is an essential part of American culture. The Westerns made by Ford are romantic visions of the Old West. The births, deaths, funerals, weddings, and dances are punctuated by songs and drunken brawls. It was from , with Stagecoach, that the true Ford Western emerged.
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