It focuses on non-fiction: the translation of books on religion, history, First published in print format ISBN eBook (EBL). Open Access E-books covering Humanities. more. By developing a collection of digital books and a database of web resources in textual and visual mode. in Victorian studies”, literary analyses and material culture studies have been joined to novel character of the bath” and “the icy torrent” (75). REGISTRARE LA VOCE CON GARAGEBAND TORRENT The only in with review to is wildly. X direction, I trust it will. Most of of two to make packets until affiliate links. A BFD filtering services includes over the trust. The value connection attempt, for a few of to application renamed and passphrase defined.
The phenomenon of a solar or lunar halo as seen from the earth is represented in fig. Passing through the luminary and parallel to the horizon, there is a white luminous circle, the parhelic circle P , on which a number of images of the luminary appear. The most brilliant are situated at the intersections of the inner halo and the parhelic circle; these are known as parhelia denoted by the letter p in the figures from the Gr.
Less brilliant are the parhelia of the outer halo. The parhelia are most brilliant when the sun is near the horizon. As the sun rises, they pass a little beyond the halo and exhibit flaming tails. A vertical circle passing through the sun may also be seen. From the parhelia of the inner halo two oblique curves L proceed. Luminous arcs T , tangential to the upper and lower parts of each halo, also occur, and in the case of the inner halo, the arcs may be prolonged to form a quasi-elliptic halo.
Galle and A. The usual form of ice-crystals in clouds is a right hexagonal prism, which may be elongated as a needle or foreshortened like a thin plate. If innumerable numbers of such crystals fall in any manner between the observer and the sun, light falling upon these crystals will be refracted, and the refracted rays will be crowded together in the position of minimum deviation see Refraction of Light.
Since the minimum deviation is least for the least refrangible rays, it follows that the red rays will be the least refracted, and the violet the more refracted, and therefore the halo will be coloured red on the inside. The two halos are the only phenomena which admit of explanation without assigning any particular distribution to the ice-crystals. But it is obvious that certain distributions will predominate, for the crystals will tend to fall so as to offer the least resistance to their motion; a needle-shaped crystal tending to keep its axis vertical, a plate-shaped crystal to keep its axis horizontal.
Thomas Young explained the parhelic circle P as due to reflection from the vertical faces of the long prisms and the bases of the short ones. If these vertical faces become very numerous, the eye will perceive a colourless horizontal circle. Reflection from an excess of horizontal prisms gives rise to a vertical circle passing through the sun. The parhelia p were explained by Mariotte as due to refraction through a pair of alternate faces of a vertical prism.
As the sun rises, the rays enter the prisms more and more obliquely, and the angle of minimum deviation increases; but since the emergent ray makes the same angle with the refracting edge as the incident ray, it follows that the parhelia will remain on the parhelic circle, while receding from the inner halo.
The axes will take up any position, and consequently give rise to a continuous series of parhelia which touch externally the inner halo, both above and below, and under certain conditions such as the requisite altitude of the sun form two closed elliptical curves; generally, however, only the upper and lower portions are seen.
The paranthelia q may be due to two internal or two external reflections. These angular distances are attained only when the sun is on the horizon, and they increase as it rises. The anthelion a may be explained as caused by two internal reflections of the solar rays by a hexagonal lamellar crystal, having its axis horizontal and one of the diagonals of its base vertical.
The emerging rays are parallel to their original direction and form a colourless image on the parhelic circle opposite the sun. See also E. Pernter, Meteorologische Optik ; and R. Heath, Geometrical Optics. The term is applied to the four elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, on account of the great similarity of their sodium salts to ordinary sea-salt.
These four elements show a great resemblance to one another in their general chemical behaviour, and in that of their compounds, whilst their physical properties show a gradual transition. Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid bromine and finally to that of the solid iodine ; at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.
The halogen of lower atomic weight can displace one of higher atomic weight from its hydrogen compound, or from the salt derived from such hydrogen compound, while, on the other hand, the halogen of higher atomic weight can displace that of lower atomic weight, from the halogen oxy-acids and their salts; thus iodine will liberate chlorine from potassium chlorate and also from perchloric acid.
All four of the halogens unite with hydrogen, but the affinity for hydrogen decreases as the atomic weight increases, hydrogen and fluorine uniting explosively at very low temperatures and in the dark, whilst hydrogen and iodine unite only at high temperatures, and even then the resulting compound is very readily decomposed by heat. The hydrides of the halogens are all colourless, strongly fuming gases, readily soluble in water and possessing a strong acid reaction; they react readily with basic oxides, forming in most cases well defined crystalline salts which resemble one another very strongly.
On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock. Compounds of fluorine and oxygen, and of bromine and oxygen, have not yet been isolated. In some respects there is a very marked difference between fluorine and the other members of the group, for, whilst sodium chloride, bromide and iodide are readily soluble in water, sodium fluoride is much less soluble; again, silver chloride, bromide and iodide are practically insoluble in water, whilst, on the other hand, silver fluoride is appreciably soluble in water.
Again, fluorine shows a great tendency to form double salts, which have no counterpart among the compounds formed by the other members of the family. As a portrait painter second only to Rembrandt in Holland, he displayed extraordinary talent and quickness in the exercise of his art coupled with improvidence in the use of the means which that art secured to him. At a time when the Dutch nation fought for independence and won it, Hals appears in the ranks of its military gilds.
But as a man he had failings. He so ill-treated his first wife, Anneke Hermansz, that she died prematurely in ; and he barely saved the character of his second, Lysbeth Reyniers, by marrying her in Another defect was partiality to drink, which led him into low company. Still he brought up and supported a family of ten children with success till , when the forced sale of his pictures and furniture, at the suit of a baker to whom he was indebted for bread and money, brought him to absolute penury.
The inventory of the property seized on this occasion only mentions three mattresses and bolsters, an armoire, a table and five pictures. This humble list represents all his worldly possessions at the time of his bankruptcy. Subsequently to this he was reduced to still greater straits, and his rent and firing were paid by the municipality, which afterwards gave him an annuity of florins.
We may admire the spirit which enabled him to produce some of his most striking works in his unhappy circumstances: we find his widow seeking outdoor relief from the guardians of the poor, and dying obscurely in a hospital. His banquets or meetings of officers, of sharpshooters, and gildsmen are the most interesting of his works. But they are not more characteristic than his low-life pictures of itinerant players and singers. His portraits of gentlefolk are true and noble, but hardly so expressive as those of fishwives and tavern heroes.
His first master at Antwerp was probably van Noort, as has been suggested by M. Davies, but on his removal to Haarlem Frans Hals entered the atelier of van Mander, the painter and historian, of whom he possessed some pictures which went to pay the debt of the baker already alluded to. But he soon improved upon the practice of the time, illustrated by J.
We prize in Rembrandt the golden glow of effects based upon artificial contrasts of low light in immeasurable gloom. Hals was fond of daylight of silvery sheen. Both men were painters of touch, but of touch on different keys—Rembrandt was the bass, Hals the treble. The latter is perhaps more expressive than the former.
He seizes with rare intuition a moment in the life of his sitters. What nature displays in that moment he reproduces thoroughly in a very delicate scale of colour, and with a perfect mastery over every form of expression. He becomes so clever at last that exact tone, light and shade, and modelling are all obtained with a few marked and fluid strokes of the brush.
In every form of his art we can distinguish his earlier style from that of later years. His flesh, less clear than it afterwards becomes, is pastose and burnished. Later he becomes more effective, displays more freedom of hand, and a greater command of effect. In fact, ever since Hals had shown a tendency to restrict the gamut of his palette, and to suggest colour rather than express it.
As this tendency coincides with the period of his poverty, it has been suggested that one of the reasons, if not the only reason, of his predilection for black and white pigment was the cheapness of these colours as compared with the costly lakes and carmines.
To register all that we find in public galleries would involve much space. In private collections, chiefly in Paris, Haarlem and Vienna, we find an equally important number. Itinerant players are best illustrated in the Neville-Goldsmith collection at the Hague, and the Six collection at Amsterdam. Boys and girls singing, playing or laughing, or men drinking, are to be found in the gallery of Schwerin, in the Arenberg collection, and in the royal palace at Brussels.
For two centuries after his death Frans Hals was held in such poor esteem that some of his paintings, which are now among the proudest possessions of public galleries, were sold at auction for a few pounds or even shillings. Quite in another form, and with much of the freedom of the elder Hals, Dirk Hals , his brother born at Haarlem, died , is a painter of festivals and ball-rooms. But Dirk had too much of the freedom and too little of the skill in drawing which characterized his brother.
He remains second on his own ground to Palamedes. More characteristic, but not better, is a large company of gentle-folk rising from dinner, in the Academy at Vienna. Unger and W. Knackfuss, Frans Hals Leipzig, ; G.
Davies, Frans Hals London, Afterwards he had a large practice at the central criminal court and the Middlesex sessions, and he was for several years junior prosecuting counsel to the treasury. He was engaged in most of the celebrated trials of his time, including the Overend and Gurney and the Tichborne cases.
Mr Giffard twice contested Cardiff in the Conservative interest, in and , but he was still without a seat in the House of Commons when he was appointed solicitor-general by Disraeli in and received the honour of knighthood. In he succeeded in obtaining a seat, when he was returned for Launceston, which borough he continued to represent until his elevation to the peerage in He was then created Baron Halsbury and appointed lord chancellor, thus forming a remarkable exception to the rule that no criminal lawyer ever reaches the woolsack.
Lord Halsbury resumed the position in and held it until and again from to , his tenure of the office, broken only by the brief Liberal ministries of and , being longer than that of any lord chancellor since Lord Eldon. In he was created earl of Halsbury and Viscount Tiverton. Among Conservative lord chancellors Lord Halsbury must always hold a high place, his grasp of legal principles and mastery in applying them being pre-eminent among the judges of his day.
It lies on a hill in a pleasant wooded district. The church of St Andrew is mainly Perpendicular. It contains a monument supposed to commemorate Sir Robert Bourchier d. The Lady Mary Ramsay grammar school dates from There are large silk and crape works. Two miles N. The chancel, which is without aisles, terminates in an apse. Three miles N. The keep dates from the end of the 11th century, and exhibits much fine Norman work. There are signs of settlement at Halstead Halsteda, Halgusted, Halsted in the Bronze Age; but there is no evidence of the causes of its growth in historic times.
Probably its situation on the river Colne made it to some extent a local centre. Throughout the middle ages Halstead was unimportant, and never rose to the rank of a borough. It was probably of Sicel origin, though its foundation was ascribed to some of the companions of Aeneas. It appears first in Roman times as a place of some importance, and suffered considerably at the hands of Verres.
The abandoned church of S. Mark, just outside the modern town, is built into the cella of an ancient Greek temple, which measures 62 ft. A number of ancient inscriptions have been found there. From to he was provost of St Andrews and a prominent figure in the national life. He was chosen as one of the lords of the congregation in , and commanded the contingents sent by Forfar and Fife against the queen regent in He took part in the defence of Edinburgh, and in the battles of Langside and Restalrig He represented Morton at the conference of , and was one of the royal commissioners to the General Assembly in and again in He died in February His father, one of the ejected ministers, having died in , he was taken by his mother in to Rotterdam to escape persecution, where he for some time attended the school founded by Erasmus.
On his return to his native country in he completed his elementary education at Perth and Edinburgh, and in graduated at the university of St Andrews. After a brief term of active professorial life he died from the effects of overwork in The works by which he continues to be known were all of them published after his death. Wesley and Whitefield were accustomed to commend them to their followers. HAM, in the Bible. Genesis x. Ham is held to be the Egyptian word Khem black which was the native name of Egypt; thus in Pss.
In Gen. Ham is a later addition to harmonize with other passages. Jeremias, Das A. HAM, a small town of northern France, in the department of Somme, 36 m. It stands on the Somme in a marshy district where market-gardening is carried on. Notre-Dame, the church of an abbey of canons regular of St Augustin, dates from the 12th and 13th centuries, but in all the inflammable portions of the building were destroyed by a conflagration caused by lightning, and a process of restoration was subsequently carried out.
Of special note are the bas-reliefs of the nave and choir, executed in the 17th and 18th centuries, and the crypt of the 12th century, which contains the sepulchral effigies of Odo IV. The castle, founded before the 10th century, was rebuilt early in the 13th, and extended in the 14th; its present appearance is mainly due to the constable Louis of Luxembourg, count of St Pol, who between and not only furnished it with outworks, but gave such a thickness to the towers and curtains, and more especially to the great tower or donjon which still bears his motto Mon Myeulx , that the great engineer and architect Viollet-le-Duc considered them, even in the 19th century, capable of resisting artillery.
It forms a rectangle ft. The eastern and western sides are each defended by a demi-lune. The castle of Ham, which now serves as barracks, has frequently been used as a state prison both in ancient and modern times, and the list of those who have sojourned there is an interesting one, including as it does Joan of Arc, Louis of Bourbon, the ministers of Charles X.
Louis Napoleon was there for six years, and at last effected his escape in the disguise of a workman. During Ham was several times captured and recaptured by the belligerents. A statue commemorates the birth in the town of General Foy The province is bounded N.
Orontes , whose granite peak rises W. It is a busy trade centre with about 40, inhabitants comprising Jews and Armenians , has extensive and well-stocked bazaars and fourteen large and many small caravanserais. The principal industries are tanning leather and the manufacture of saddles, harnesses, trunks, and other leather goods, felts and copper utensils. Among objects of interest are the alleged tombs of Esther and Mordecai in an insignificant domed building in the centre of the town.
There are two wooden sarcophagi carved all over with Hebrew inscriptions. That ascribed to Mordecai has the verses Isaiah lix. The inscriptions on the other sarcophagus consist of the verses Esther ix. Five miles S. There he died at the age of forty.
He was renowned for a remarkable memory and for fluency of speech, as well as for the purity of his language. A good idea of the latter may be obtained from S. A specimen of the letters is translated into German in A. Vienna, The Orontes flows winding past the city and is spanned by four bridges. On the south-east the houses rise ft. Twenty-four minarets rise from the various mosques. The houses are principally of mud, and the town stands amid poplar gardens with a fertile plain to the west.
The castle is ruined, the streets are narrow and dirty, but the bazaars are good, and the trade with the Bedouins considerable. Silk, woollen and cotton goods are manufactured. The population is about 40, In the year B. Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II. In B. Tiglath Pileser III.
The downfall of so ancient a state made a great impression at Jerusalem Isa. According to 2 Kings xvii. Israel, where they made images of Ashima or Eshmun probably Ishtar. In it was retaken by the Moslems, and in was occupied by Saladin. Abulfeda, prince of Hamah in the early part of the 14th century, is well known as an authority on Arab geography. His parents were of humble rank and small means.
In be began theological studies, but speedily deserted them and turned his attention to law. That too was taken up in a desultory fashion and quickly relinquished. Such studies, however, were pursued without any definite aim or systematic arrangement, and consequently were productive of nothing.
In , constrained to secure some position in the world, he accepted a tutorship in a family resident in Livonia, but only retained it a few months. A similar situation in Courland he also resigned after about a year. In both cases apparently the rupture might be traced to the curious and unsatisfactory character of Hamann himself. After leaving his second post he was received into the house of a merchant at Riga named Johann Christoph Behrens, who contracted a great friendship for him and selected him as his companion for a tour through Danzig, Berlin, Hamburg, Amsterdam and London.
Hamann, however, was quite unfitted for business, and when left in London, gave himself up entirely to his fancies, and was quickly reduced to a state of extreme poverty and want. It was at this period of his life, when his inner troubles of spirit harmonized with the unhappy external conditions of his lot, that he began an earnest and prolonged study of the Bible; and from this time dates the tone of extreme pietism which is characteristic of his writings, and which undoubtedly alienated many of his friends.
He returned to Riga, and was well received by the Behrens family, in whose house he resided for some time. A quarrel, the precise nature of which is not very clear though the occasion is evident, led to an entire separation from these friends. In he obtained a situation as translator in the excise office, and ten years later a post as storekeeper in a mercantile house. During this period of comparative rest Hamann was able to indulge in the long correspondence with learned friends which seems to have been his greatest pleasure.
In the failure of some commercial speculations greatly reduced his means, and about the same time he was dismissed with a small pension from his situation. The kindness of friends, however, supplied provision for his children, and enabled him to carry out the long-cherished wish of visiting some of his philosophical allies. He spent some time with Jacobi at Pempelfort and with Buchholz at Walbergen.
At the latter place he was seized with illness, and died on the 21st of June They are entirely unsystematic so far as matter is concerned, chaotic and disjointed in style. To a reader not acquainted with the peculiar nature of the man, which led him to regard what commended itself to him as therefore objectively true, they must be, moreover, entirely unintelligible and, from their peculiar, pietistic tone and scriptural jargon, probably offensive.
A place in the history of philosophy can be yielded to Hamann only because he expresses in uncouth, barbarous fashion an idea to which other writers have given more effective shape. The fundamental thought is with him the unsatisfactoriness of abstraction or one-sidedness. Even Epicureanism, which might appear concrete, was by him rightly designated abstract. Quite naturally, then, Hamann is led to object strongly to much of the Kantian philosophy.
The separation of sense and understanding is for him unjustifiable, and only paralleled by the extraordinary blunder of severing matter and form. The demand, however, remains but a demand. Nothing that Hamann has given can be regarded as in the slightest degree a response to it. In language, which he appears to regard as somehow acquired, he finds a solution for the problems of reason which Kant had discussed in the Kritik der reinen Vernunft.
On the application of these thoughts to the Christian theology one need not enter. A complete collection has been published by F. Roth Schriften , 8vo, , and by C. Gildemeister Leben und Schriften , 6 vols. See also M. Petri, Hamanns Schriften u. Briefe , 4 vols.
Poel, Hamann, der Magus im Norden, sein Leben u. Mitteilungen aus seinen Schriften 2 vols. Claassen, Hamanns Leben und Werke Also H. Weber, Neue Hamanniana Werke, Bd. Minor, J. Remains of the latter include a nave-arcade with rounded arches. The town is a centre for the local agricultural and timber trade. Of these books the first is by far the longest, both in the number and extent of its poems, and the first two together make up more than half the bulk of the work. The poems are for the most part fragments selected from longer compositions, though a considerable number are probably entire.
The compilation is thus essentially an anthology of minor poets, and exhibits so far at least as the more ancient poems are concerned the general average of poetic utterance at a time when to speak in verse was the daily habit of every warrior of the desert. The compiler was himself a distinguished poet in the style of his day, and wandered through many provinces of the Moslem empire earning money and fame by his skill in panegyric.
About A. It has the true stamp of the heroic time, of its cruelty and wantonness as of its strength and beauty. Freytag of Bonn, together with a Latin translation and notes This monumental work, the labour of a life, is a treasure of information regarding the classical age of Arab literature which has not perhaps its equal for extent, accuracy, and minuteness of detail in Europe.
A small collection of translations, chiefly in metres imitating those of the original, was published in London by Sir Charles Lyall in The whole territory has an area of sq. Administratively the state is divided into the city, or metropolitan district, and four rural domains or Landherrenschaften , each under a senator as praeses , viz.
The Geestlande comprise the suburban districts encircling the city on the north and west; the Marschlande includes various islands in the Elbe and the fertile tract of land lying between the northern and southern arms of the Elbe, and with its pastures and market gardens supplying Hamburg with large quantities of country produce. Two rivers, the Alster and the Bille, flow through the city of Hamburg into the Elbe, the mouth of which, at Cuxhaven, is 75 m. Its present constitution came into force on the 1st of January , and was revised in and again in According to this Hamburg is a republic, the government Staatsgewalt residing in two chambers, the Senate and the House of Burgesses.
The Senate, which exercises the greater part of the executive power, is composed of eighteen members, one half of whom must have studied law or finance, while at least seven of the remainder must belong to the class of merchants. The members of the Senate are elected for life by the House of Burgesses; but a senator is free to retire from office at the expiry of six years.
No burgomaster can be in office for longer than two years consecutively, and no member of the Senate may hold any other public office. They are elected for a period of six years, but as half of each class retire at the end of three years, new elections for one half the number take place at the end of that time.
The Senate can interpose a veto in all matters of legislation, saving taxation, and where there is a collision between the two bodies, provision is made for reference to a court of arbitration, consisting of members of both houses in equal numbers, and also to the supreme court of the empire Reichsgericht sitting at Leipzig. The law administered is that of the civil and penal codes of the German empire, and the court of appeal for all three Hanse towns is the common Oberlandesgericht , which has its seat in Hamburg.
There is also a special court of arbitration in commercial disputes and another for such as arise under accident insurance. The ecclesiastical arrangements of Hamburg have undergone great modifications since the general constitution of Exceptions were gradually made in favour of foreign residents; but it was not till that regular inhabitants were allowed to exercise the religious rites of other denominations, and it was not till after the war of freedom that they were allowed to have buildings in the style of churches.
In full religious liberty was guaranteed, and the identification of church and state abolished. By the new constitution of the Lutheran Church, published at first in for the city only, but in extended to the rest of the Hamburg territory, the parishes or communes are divided into three church-districts, and the general affairs of the whole community are entrusted to a synod of 53 members and to an ecclesiastical council of 9 members which acts as an executive.
Since a church rate has been levied on the Evangelical-Lutheran communities, and since upon the Roman Catholics also. Civil marriages have been permissible in Hamburg since , and since the introduction of the imperial law in January the number of such marriages has greatly increased. The population of the country districts exclusive of the city of Hamburg was 72, in The crops raised in the country districts are principally vegetables and fruit, potatoes, hay, oats, rye and wheat.
For manufactures and trade statistics see Hamburg city. The military organization of Hamburg was arranged by convention with Prussia. The state furnishes three battalions of the 2nd Hanseatic regiment, under Prussian officers. The soldiers swear the oath of allegiance to the senate. It is the largest and most important seaport on the continent of Europe and after London and New York the third largest in the world. Were it not for political and municipal boundaries Hamburg might be considered as forming with Altona and Ottensen which lie within Prussian territory one town.
The city proper lies on both sides of the little river Alster, which, dammed up a short distance from its mouth, forms a lake, of which the southern portion within the line of the former fortifications bears the name of the Inner Alster Binnen Alster , and the other and larger portion yards long and yards at the widest that of the Outer Alster Aussen Alster. The fortifications as such were removed in , but they have left their trace in a fine girdle of green round the city, though too many inroads on its completeness have been made by railways and roadways.
The oldest portion of the city is that which lies to the east of the Alster; but, though it still retains the name of Altstadt, nearly all trace of its antiquity has disappeared, as it was rebuilt after the great fire of To the west lies the new town Neustadt , incorporated in ; beyond this and contiguous to Altona is the former suburb of St Pauli, incorporated in , and towards the north-east that of St Georg, which arose in the 13th century but was not incorporated till They generally form what may be called the back streets, and they are bordered by warehouses, cellars and the lower class of dwelling-houses.
As they are subject to the ebb and flow of the Elbe, at certain times they run almost dry. Along the southern end of the Binnen Alster runs the Jungfernstieg with fine shops, hotels and restaurants facing the water. A fleet of shallow-draught screw steamers provides a favourite means of communication between the business centre of the city and the outlying colonies of villas.
The streets enclosing the Binnen Alster are fashionable promenades, and leading directly from this quarter are the main business thoroughfares, the Neuer-Wall, the Grosse Bleichen and the Hermannstrasse. The largest of the public squares in Hamburg is the Hopfenmarkt, which contains the church of St Nicholas Nikolaikirche and is the principal market for vegetables and fruit.
Of the thirty-five churches existing in Hamburg the old cathedral had to be taken down in , the St Petrikirche, Nikolaikirche, St Katharinenkirche, St Jakobikirche and St Michaeliskirche are those that give their names to the five old city parishes. The Nikolaikirche is especially remarkable for its spire, which is ft.
The old church was destroyed in the great fire of , and the new building, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 13th century Gothic, was erected The exterior and interior are elaborately adorned with sculptures.
Sandstone from Osterwald near Hildesheim was used for the outside, and for the inner work a softer variety from Postelwitz near Dresden. The Michaeliskirche, which is built on the highest point in the city and has a tower ft. Sonnin on the site of the older building of the 17th century destroyed by lightning; the interior, which can contain people, is remarkable for its bold construction, there being no pillars.
The St Petrikirche, originally consecrated in the 12th century and rebuilt in the 14th, was the oldest church in Hamburg; it was burnt in and rebuilt in its old form in It has a graceful tapering spire ft. The St Katharinenkirche and the St Jakobikirche are the only surviving medieval churches, but neither is of special interest. Of the numerous other churches, Evangelical, Roman Catholic and Anglican, none are of special interest.
The beautiful chapel of St Gertrude was unfortunately destroyed in Hamburg has comparatively few secular buildings of great architectural interest, but first among them is the new Rathaus, a huge German Renaissance building, constructed of sandstone in , richly adorned with sculptures and with a spire ft. It is the place of meeting of the municipal council and of the senate and contains the city archives.
Immediately adjoining it and connected with it by two wings is the exchange. It was erected in on the site of the convent of St Mary Magdalen and escaped the conflagration of It was restored and enlarged in , and shelters the commercial library of nearly , vols. During the business hours P. In the same neighbourhood is the Johanneum, erected in and in which are preserved the town library of about , printed books and MSS. In the courtyard is a statue of the reformer Johann Bugenhagen.
In the Fischmarkt, immediately south of the Johanneum, a handsome fountain was erected in Directly west of the town hall is the new Stadthaus, the chief police station of the town, in front of which is a bronze statue of the burgomaster Karl Friedrich Petersen , erected in A little farther away are the headquarters of the Patriotic Society Patriotische Gesellschaft , founded in , with fine rooms for the meetings of artistic and learned societies.
Several new public buildings have been erected along the circuit of the former walls. Farther north, along the line of the former town wall, are the criminal law courts , enlarged and the civil law courts finished in Close to the latter stand the new supreme court, the old age and accident state insurance offices, the chief custom house, and the concert hall, founded by Karl Laeisz, a former Hamburg wharfinger.
Farther on are the chemical and the physical laboratories and the Hygienic Institute. Facing the botanical gardens a new central post-office, in the Renaissance style, was built in A few streets south of that is a monument to Lessing ; while occupying a commanding site on the promenades towards Altona is the gigantic statue of Bismarck which was unveiled in June The new Natural History Museum, completed in , stands a little distance farther south. To the east of it comes the Museum for Art and Industry, founded in , now one of the most important institutions of the kind in Germany, with which is connected a trades school.
Close by is the Hansa-fountain 65 ft. On the north-east side of the suburb of St Georg a botanical museum and laboratory have been established. There is a new general hospital at Eppendorf, outside the town on the north, built on the pavilion principle, and one of the finest structures of the kind in Europe; and at Ohlsdorf, in the same direction, a crematorium was built in in conjunction with the town cemeteries acres.
The river is spanned just above the Frei Hafen by a triple-arched railway bridge, ft. Some yds. The southern arm of the Elbe, on the south side of the island of Wilhelmsburg, is crossed by another railway bridge of four arches and ft.
Between this central station and Altona terminus runs the metropolitan railway, which has been raised several feet so as to bridge over the streets, and on which lie the important stations Dammtor and Sternschanze. Trade and Shipping. Its commerce is, however, almost entirely of the nature of transit trade, for it is not only the chief distributing centre for the middle of Europe of the products of all other parts of the world, but is also the chief outlet for German, Austrian, and even to some extent Russian Polish raw products and manufactures.
Its principal imports are coffee of which it is the greatest continental market , tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine especially from Bordeaux , lard from Chicago , cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax from Morocco and Mozambique , tobacco, hemp, cotton which of late years shows a large increase , wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal. Of the total importations of all kinds of coal to Hamburg, that of British coal, particularly from Northumberland and Durham, occupies the first place, and despite some falling off in late years, owing to the competition made by Westphalian coal, amounts to more than half the total import.
The increase of the trade of Hamburg is most strikingly shown by that of the shipping belonging to the port. Between and there were sailing vessels with a tonnage of ,, and steam-ships with a tonnage of 87, In there were exclusive of fishing vessels sailing ships with a tonnage of ,, and steamers with a tonnage of 1,, In the crews numbered men, in they numbered 29, Among the chief industries are those for the production of articles of food and drink.
The import trade of various cereals by sea to Hamburg is very large, and a considerable portion of this corn is converted into flour at Hamburg itself. There are also, in this connexion, numerous bakeries for biscuit, rice-peeling mills and spice mills. Besides the foregoing there are cocoa, chocolate, confectionery and baking-powder factories, coffee-roasting and ham-curing and smoking establishments, lard refineries, margarine manufactories and fish-curing, preserving and packing factories.
There are numerous breweries, producing annually about 24,, gallons of beer, spirit distilleries and factories of artificial waters. Yarns, textile goods and weaving industries generally have not attained any great dimensions, but there are large jute-spinning mills and factories for cotton-wool and cotton driving-belts. Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts , hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products including artificial manures , oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.
Shipbuilding has made very important progress, and there are at present in Hamburg eleven large shipbuilding yards, employing nearly 10, hands. Of these, however, only three are of any great extent, and one, where the largest class of ocean-going steamers and of war vessels for the German navy are built, employs about persons. There are also two yards for the building of pleasure yachts and rowing-boats in both which branches of sport Hamburg takes a leading place in Germany.
Art industries, particularly those which appeal to the luxurious taste of the inhabitants in fitting their houses, such as wall-papers and furniture, and those which are included in the equipment of ocean-going steamers, have of late years made rapid strides and are among the best productions of this character of any German city. At the same time a portion of the port was set apart as a free harbour, altogether an area of acres of water and acres of dry land.
On the north side of the Elbe there are the Sandtor basin ft. South of this lies the Grasbrook basin quayage of ft. At the quay point between these two basins there are vast state granaries. On the outer i. To the east of these two is the small Magdeburg basin, penetrating north, and the Baaken basin, penetrating east, i. On the south bank of the stream there follow in succession, going from east to west, the Moldau dock for river craft, the sailing vessel dock Segelschiff Hafen, ft.
In Hamburg was provided with a huge floating dock, ft. In , on an average they numbered 90, a year of whom 60, proceeded to the United States. In the number was 87, and to the United States 64, The number of emigrant Germans has enormously decreased of late years, Russia and Austria-Hungary now being most largely represented. For the accommodation of such passengers large and convenient emigrant shelters have been recently erected close to the wharf of embarkation.
Health and Population. The malady causing the greatest number of deaths is that of pulmonary consumption; but better housing accommodation has of late years reduced the mortality from this disease very considerably. The results of the census of showed the population of the city not including the rural districts belonging to the state of Hamburg to be , Hamburg is well supplied with places of amusement, especially of the more popular kind.
Its Stadt-Theater, rebuilt in , has room for spectators and is particularly devoted to operatic performances; the Thalia-Theater dates from , and holds to people, and the Schauspielhaus for drama from people, and there are some seven or eight minor establishments.
Though contributing few names of the highest rank to German literature, the city has been intimately associated with the literary movement. The historian Lappenberg and Friedrich von Hagedorn were born in Hamburg; and not only Lessing, but Heine and Klopstock lived there for some time.
In Charlemagne founded a church here, perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish islands and even into Sweden and Norway. In Hamburg became an archbishopric, St Ansgar, a monk of Corbie and known as the apostle of the North, being the first metropolitan. In church, monastery and town were burnt down by the Norsemen, and two years later the see of Hamburg was united with that of Bremen and its seat transferred to the latter city.
The town, rebuilt after this disaster, was again more than once devastated by invading Danes and Slavs. Archbishop Unwan of Hamburg-Bremen substituted a chapter of canons for the monastery, and in Archbishop Bezelin or Alebrand built a stone cathedral and a palace on the Elbe. In Hamburg, with Holstein, passed into the hands of Adolph I. In return for a contribution to the costs of a crusade, he obtained from the emperor Frederick I. The city council Rath , first mentioned in , had jurisdiction over both the episcopal and the new town.
The wealth of the town was increased in by the destruction of the flourishing trading centre of Bardowieck by Henry the Lion; from this time it began to be much frequented by Flemish merchants. In the city submitted to Valdemar of Schleswig, after his victory over the count of Holstein, but in , owing to the capture of King Valdemar II.
The internal organization of the city, too, was rendered more stable by the new constitution of , and the recognition in of the complete internal autonomy of the city by the count of Schauenburg. The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in and , which were settled by further compromises.
In Hamburg did homage to Christian I. In the Reformation was definitively established in Hamburg by the Great Recess of the 19th of February, which at the same time vested the government of the city in the Rath , together with the three colleges of the Oberalten , the Forty-eight increased to 60 in and the Hundred and Forty-four increased to The ordinary burgesses consisted of the freeholders and the master-workmen of the gilds. In Hamburg joined the league of Schmalkalden, for which error it had to pay a heavy fine in when the league had been defeated.
During the same period the Lutheran zeal of the citizens led to the expulsion of the Mennonites and other Protestant sects, who founded Altona. Volume 51, Issue 1. Previous Article Next Article. Article Navigation. Research Article March 12 This Site. The Journal of Nietzsche Studies 51 1 : 98— Cite Icon Cite. All rights reserved. You do not currently have access to this content.
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