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Kurzeme (Liepāja, Ventspils, Kuldīga) Kuiviži, small town in the Bay of Riga, at the mouth of the Krišupe; Kapteiņu osta · Riga, the capital city of. major coal exporters: Colombia (supply problems), Indonesia (torrential BCT joint-stock company was founded by Ventspils Tirdzniecibas Osta (VTO) – coal.

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Preparation and properties of 9a-substituted-1H-fluorenones. Classification of Adaptive Systems in Computer Science. Air Navigation Simulator. Research of the Android Applications Development. Building Complex in Marupe. Improvement of lamination line for surface decoration panels production. Development of the Insurance Management Information System. Encumbered Areas and their Determination in Gulbene Area.

Pattern Grading. Clothing Logistic. Types of heating in single-family houses. Analysis of Application Development for Mobile Devices. Green Structures in Sustainable Urban Development. Methods for the synthesis of 1,4-quinones fused with heterocycles. Optical and electrical properties of Si and Ge p-n junctions and nanostructures obtained by laser radiation.

Preparation of magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite by wet chemical precipitation method. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with silica. Architecture as Space of Communication. Study of drug polymorphism and development of new multicomponent pharmaceutical solids. Project for increasing competitiveness of JSC "Balticovo".

Asymmetry Research in Symmetrical Cable Lines. Analysis of Asymmetric Cryptographic Algorithms. Asynchronous capacitor motors mechanical characteristic simulation and research. Associative Meaning and Context. Influence of deicing salts on porous silicate materials. Leisure Base in Mangalsala. Recreation centre development project.

Recreation Center in Carnikava. Location Based Technologies. Image Quality Improving Noise Purify. Conclusion on the compliance of building project to fire security requirements. High performance concrete. High Voltage Direct Current Transmission lines. Automobile Engine Control System Research. Automatic pelagic small fish infeeding machine. Methods of Automatic Memory Management.

Technical maintenance procedures for automatic fire protection systems. Automatic tincan washing machine. Design of automatic badminton balls dispensing machine. Baggage X-ray Unit Modernization. Voice Telephony Quality of Service Assessment.

Emulsifying properties of the grey alder hemicelluloses. Project for improving a bank"s operating efficiency. Project for improving a bank"s marketing activities in the period of global economic changes. Operating efficiency improvement project for a bank branch. Project for improvement of a bank"s services quality. Bankruptcy prediction models and their application possibilities in Latvia. Improvements of Power Supply Filters.

The scope of benzoisothiazolones synthesis from 2-brombenzamide and sulfur under copper catalysis conditions. Children"s Clothing Collection for Company "Hebe". Kindergarten in Upesciems, Garkalne Region. Technical solutions for kindergarden buildings envelopes. Characteristics of winter diesel fuel containing biodiesel. Production of Biogas in Small Power Digesters. Biogas production and use potential in Latvian agriculture.

Bioclimatic Strategies in Architecture. Biodegradable polymer matrices for reinforced eco-composites. Analysis of Dangerous Road Sections. Project of Development of a Business Plan. The Business Start-up Project. Building information modeling impact analysis on Consolis Latvija Ltd. Insurance of the risk in construction and their impact on construction industry. Construction company"s efficiency improvement project.

Reconstruction of Centralized Thermal Energy Networks. The effect of water hardness on water electrolysis using titanium oxide ceramic electrodes. Analysis of Digital Filters in Signal Processing. Analysis of Digital Device Diagnostics Results. Digital Radiorelay Systems in Transport. Analysis of Cisco Express Forwarding Operation. Improvement of liquidation processes of natural disaster consequences.

Checkers min-max Algorithm use in Robotics. Implementation of Checkers Game with Industrial Robot. Improvement of internal monitoring of labour protection in road maintenance companies. Development of labor protection system for self-employed and for small businesses. Project of development of performance appraisal system. Main directions of the workplace monitoring methodology improvement in the electricity distribution company. Evaluation of Workflow Development Tools.

Designing of packing machine for vegetables. Creating additional business value through the use of data mining techniques. Evaluation of Computer Information Protection Methods. Computer Network Design in Simulink Environment. Traffic Security in Wireless Sensor Networks. Database Development in Microsoft. NET Environment. Evaluation of Data Integration Solution.

Comparison of Data Transmission Line Connectors. Evaluation of Data Synhronization Solutions. Multidimensionality in Architecture. The common problems in the real estate management in apartment houses in Riga and their solutions. Apartment of dwelling house available thermal energy efficient use necessity. Apartment house management of the economic aspects. Economical substantiation of renovation project for dwelling houses to increase energy efficiency. Tehnical and economial solutions to increase energy efficiency of apasrment house in Latvia.

Rational improving feasibilities of energy efficiency for multistory houses. Apartment building maintance costs management possibilities in Latvia. Technical economical solutions of apartment buildings heating systems reequipment. Multifunctional Modular Furniture. Multilegged Robot Locomotion on Rough Terrain. Implementing a Cross-platform Network Monitoring System. Production and investigation of exploitation properties of multilayers polyolefine films.

Variety of Technical Styles: Style Analysis. Research of Different Noise Spectrum. Chemical and thermal activation of some clays of Latvia. Project for improving receivables management. Receivables management efficiency project for a leasing company. Organization of Fuel Supplies in the Retail Company. Decorative Luminaires. Dendrolight Furniture. Modernization of the Dental X-ray Machines Arm.

Investigation of deteriorated archaeological wood fragment. Conceptual Content in Digital Architecture. Current Tendencies in Dispatcher Centralization. Optimization of Dispatching Laps. Development of a Anti-surge System for a Turbofan Engine. Design Development Through Education. Quantum chemical simulations of doped titanium dioxide nanotubes for photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Analysis of Security in Ajax Applications.

Rail Transport Safety Improvement. Typing Robot Realization. Dosing of crumbled cacao beans. Iron II catalysed synthesis of arylphosphonic acid esters. Synthesis, properties and applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Modelling of stress-strain state reinforced concrete structures under the joint action chloride corrosion and carbonization. Drinking water treatment station sludge recycling options.

Timber Housing Block in Grizinkalns, Riga. Economic base of dwelling house management options. The planning of energy efficiency measures of residential house. Sustainable Development Tendencies of Housing Area. Residential building energy efficiency increase project.

Residential building energy efficiency project in Rezekne. Residential housing construction procurement organization. Economical verification of residential building renovation. The economic justificationof residental house renovation. Economic justification of apartment house renovation. Residential buildings renovation economic problems and possible solutions. Apartment appraisal features, problems and solutions. Differences between cadastral and individual valuation for residential property in Latvia.

Improving the competitiveness of a catering company. Efficiency increase in the Master Data department of Rimi Baltic. Solutions for effective and fireproof flue pipe constructions. Diversity of Terms Used in the Studies of Economics. Comparison of 6th and 7th Category Shielded Cable Parameters. Experimental Housing in Riga. Investigation of extractive-pyrolytic method possibilities to produce nano-sized particles of noble metals on different carriers. Electric Heating of Buildings. Building Renovation in Residential Quarter.

Influence of electrode material and samples surface processing on measurements of dielectric properties of PLZT ceramics. Electricity traders choice technical-economically substantiation for commercial property management. Automated Electricity Accounting Systems. Recucling of EAF slag and non-waste technology. Utilization of white slag and use of the separated ferrous fraction in manufacture. Improvement of steelmaking practice in EAF by using scrap preheating shaft.

Electromagnetic Pulse Effect on Coaxial Cable. Electromechanical Energy Harvesting Technologies. Integration of Electronic Components into Textiles. Conductive System"s Integration in Showdance Costume. Theorethical and practical aspects of implementation of energy efficient street lighting. Energy efficiency measures and financial justification.

Economical justification for selecting energy efficiency efforts for residential buildings in Gulbene. Power System Management and Risks Pertaining to it. Energy Generation in Nuclear Stations. Energy Production in Condensation Power Stations. E-Services Quality Assessment and Assurance. E-services company"s development project.

Ergonomics in Web Systems Development. Test of ethanol vapour sensitivity of polyvinylacatate-nanostructured carbon composites. Ethernet in Next Generation Network. Evaluation of Functionality and Security of Online Store. Phantom for Isocenter Positionation Accuracy Determination.

Development and application of a pharmacophore model to OCTN2 inhibitor design. Development and validation of high perfomance liquid chromatography method for determination of phenibut hydrochloride related substances. FFT Optimal Design. Plywood board sorter with industrial robot. Flash in Game Development.

Flocculants in water treatment. Analysis of Formal Specification Language "Alloy". Modeling a Fotorealistic Object in Autodesk Maya. Synthesis and spectroscopic characteristics of 2-benzyliden-1,3-indandione derivatives containing two alkyl substituents in the phthaloyl cycle.

Functional Cube. Rescue works in smoke-screen environment of multistoreyed buildings. Rescue works performed using mountain climbing equipment. Methods of performing rescue works in areas influenced by landslides. Glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen in the presence of novel supported platinum catalysts. Production of glyceric, lactic and ketomalonic acids from catalytic oxidation processes of glycerol.

Corrosion and restoration of Gotland sandstone. Cow Mover Device Projection for deep Cowshed. Creation of Graphical Image in Design Process. Bookcase with Variable Shelf Placement. Accounting company"s performance improvement project. Grain cleaning machines development. Development of Smart House System. Log-type Beehive. Application of Genetic Programming in Symbolic Regression. Algorithmization of Processing Geodetic Measurements. Family Gardens in Contemporary Cities. Hybrid Car Management Systems Development.

Hybrid Buildings. Increase of efficiency of abrasive water jet cutting process. Synthesis and transformations of 4-aminotetrahydroindazoles. Investment fund management efficiency evaluation. The internal water supply system in public building. Internal engineering networks modernization problems in the context of sustainable management.

Revenue-bearing object evaluation. Valuation of income - bearing real estate. Possibilities and Limitations in Technical Translation. Sole proprietorship Felicity fashion. The sustainable management of real estate development in Latvian. Simulation-based Business Process Design. Enterprise Network Information Security Management. Information system development for increasing business. Analysis of Information Technology Applications in Logistics.

Analysis of Information and Data Protection Solutions. Project of Development of an Informative Product. Evaluation of Infrastructure Virtualization Technologies. Innovation implementation support system at Riga Technical University. Innovative, nature friendly adhesives for wood bonding. Development of innovative activities within the enterprise Kurzemes Business Incubator Ltd. Intellectual Robot Behaviour Modeling. Evaluation of Interactive WebTechnologies Development.

Implementation of on Interface Translator in Embedded Linux. Internationalization as an Aspect of the Standardization of Technical Terms. Strategic planning of an Internet business development. Expansion project for an online store. Analytical assessment of investing in real estate transactions. Investment evaluation project. Investment attraction problems and solutions in real-estate management companies. Project of Attraction of Investments in a Manufacturing Company.

Investment project assessment. Property managament solutions for comercial facilities. IT Solutions for Business Analytics. Optimization of Picking System in Warehouse. The raw materials for production of E-type glass fibre. Educational Centre"s development project. Cost reduction opportunities in a hospital. Cost-reduction project for an accounting firm. Fuzzy Ontologies and their Applications. The development and investigation of properties of new finishing material composition for window opening.

Launching a new service in the Latvian market. Project for establishing a new services company. Project for new product introduction in a woodworking company. New company"s establishment project. New chromophores and luminophores based on 2-acetyl-1,3-indandione. The synthesis of new 1- indan-1,3-dionyl pyridinium betaine analogues.

Synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazolyl glycohybrids. Coffee Table "Time for Magic". Changes of calcium hydroxide particles during hydroxyapatite synthesis. Project of Timber Drying Chamber. Hemp Fibre Properties and Usage in Nonwovens.

Hemp Fiber Thermo Mechanical Properties. Kajaks, Dr. Company"s operating efficiency assessment. Competitiveness enhancement project for a capital company. Synthesis of carbazoles from diarylamines in the homolytic aromatic substitution reactions. Geopolymerisation possibilities of carbonates containing clays of Latvia. Frame manufacturing automation tehnologies. Project for improving card products and services in the bank Swedbank.

Catalytic reduction of rapeseed oil to hydrocarbons. Camping Tents. Customer attraction project for a service company. Customer service improvement project. Evaluation of Bug Tracking and Announcement Systems. Wooden Stairs in Urban Space. Design of Timber Warehouse Complex Mechanization.

Plywood in Bike. Revitalization of Cape Kolka. Commercial bank"s performance improvement project. Credit policy improvement project for a commercial bank. Project for developing relationships between a commercial bank and its customers. Granulometry and mineral composition of commercial cosmetic clays. Analysis of Switching Processes in Packet Networks. Analysis of Switches Operation in Routers.

Concept in Architecture. Preparation and reactions of annelated dihydroindeno [1,2-b]pyridine analogues. Opportunities for increasing competitiveness in a wholesale scrap metal company. Trading company"s competitiveness enhancement project. Competitiveness enhancement project for a service and trading company. Project of Increasing of the Competitiveness of a Service Company.

Project of increasing of the Competitiveness of a Service Company. Project of Increasing of the Competitiveness of a Trade Company. Development of the Competitive Advantage for Advertising Agency. Optimization of Container Terminal Intermodal Process. The construction of central line.

Plastic bottle labeling conveyo. Stock improvement system project for a retail company. Enhancement of inventory management system in Biosan company. Development of Krasta Neighborhood in Riga. Development of Cargo Transportation Information System. Heritage evaluation features, problems and solutions.

Heritage value measurement solutions in Latvia. Culture and Education Centre in Dubulti. Synthesis and properties of derivatives of coumarincarboxylic acid. The aspects of fuel choice for heating of buildings. Quality management system development in real estate management. Thermochemical characterization of wheat straw.

The Evolution of Brick Architecture. Wedge Exploitation in Constructions. Laboratory Sensor Network Testbed Design. Contemporary Culture Workshop in Teika. Changes in the deciduous wood properties after hydrothermal treatment. Latvian Company "Astra Logistic Ltd.

Problems and solutions of Latvian Lutheran pastor manor house management. Treatment of Latvian clays with organic acids. Exploitation of Latvian clay for recycling of sewage sludge. Modifying of Latvian clays with alkali and their properties. Transformation of Pension Model in Latvia. The necessity of Latvian valuation standart development. Project for improving agriculture financing. Lexical Meaning: Connotation and Denotation.

Decision Making in the Process of Translation. Choice of Words: Topicality and Fashion. Aerodrome Service Communication Ensurance Research. Airport service quality improvement project. Technically economical features and solutions for panel apartment buildings energy efficiency improvement in Latvia. Development of Application for Operating System Android. Software Applications Virtualisation Technologies. User Involvement in the Process of Inductive Learning.

The influence of chemical modification on linen fabric dyeing quality. Influence of flax reinforcement on the properties of biocomposites. The Problems and Solutions of Lyophilisation Units. Synthesis of lysine derivatives. Sorptive immobilization of lysozyme and its enzymatic activity.

Analysis of Functionality of Logistics Information Systems. Modelling Logistics Company Business Processes. Pricing project for a logistics company. Analysis of the Local and Centralized Security Systems. Sheet metal tile extrusion press development. The geomarketing of Madona region. Magnetic Tiles. The effect of mixing conditions on synthesis of hydroxyapatite.

House cladding panels manufacturing. Stylistic Devices in Technical Text Translation. Clay processing rollers grinding machine. Technology of Mangali Station Work. Reconstruction of Mangali Station. Manipulation in the Translation of Technical Texts.

Marketing mix in a trading company. Application of marketing communications in a services company. Marketing communications management in trading companies. Marketing strategy development in a company. Routing in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks. Analysis of Routing Protocols Facilities. Modernization of the Materials Testing Machine. Establishing a small trading company. Business Development Project of a Small Company. Furniture from Laths. Medical syringe assembly machine.

Synthesis and crystal structure of meldonium and gamma-butyrobetaine pharmaceutical salts. Application of Metaheuristical Methods in Vehicle Routing. Development of steelmaking practice in EAF with the purpose of lowering non-metallic inclusion content and improvement of the cast billet quality. Germany became a centrally governed state which soon began to reap the rewards of its ruth- less conquests.

It was grim retribution that the peace treaty, marking her absolute defeat, should have been drawn up in that same Hall of Mirrors where not many decades earlier she had humbled France. Germany had been beaten to the ground, but except for the narrow strip of Rhineland, she did not suffer the humiliation of an occupying army.

So terrible had been the ruin and loss of life in the war of that people l. Mural lilly taptured Kotlunh-iif; diiniiR the. Not so the Gcimans who still had the spirit to make war and the raw materials of war to hand. Only a leader was absent and this lack was remedied when the German people handed their destiny to Adolf Hitler. The world hardly bothered when Ger- man troops reoccupied the Rhineland or when the rich industrial region of the Saar returned to Germany.

But then it was too late. Elated by his Czech success, Hitler turned on Poland. Once again, Germany had brought war to the world. For a fateful time, Germany bestrode Europe, inflicting cruelties that are still fresh in our memories Then came her defeat, more ruthless and utter in its modern form than it could ever have been in War with all its honors reached into the heart of Geimany.

Towns and cities were razed to the ground by aerial bombardment Arro- gant Germany became a land of luin and devastation and felt in her own streets and homes some of the suffering and misery which she herself had brought on much of Europe. Defeated Germany Now, under the control and guidance of her conquerors, Germany seeks to rebuild her shattered land, to learn the lesson that defeat alone could teach her, and in time, perhaps, to enter once more into the family of European nations For if Germany can be made to renounce the false gods which have made hrr hated through the civilised world, she can contribute in good measure to the progress of mankind.

Her people are hardworking, thorough and inventive, and have already added much to tlic store of human knowledge. Germans first made paper out of rags. Now much has been dcstioyed in the crud retribution which the Germans brought upon themselves lo-day the land wc call Germany is no more than zones of occupation where Amencan, Russian, French or British word is law, whose capital, Bcrlm, is itself divided between the conquerors while her eastern provinces, including industiial Silesia, arc in Polish hands.

By this canal the barges from the Ruhr can reach the German port without going through Holland to the Dutch port of Rotterdam. The Ruhr coalfield was the great centre of German industry and at least twelve of her great towns each with a population of more than loo. More than two million men were employed in the coal mines and iron foundries of the Ruhr.

The great steel works at Essen with the mighty munitions factories of the Krupp family were here. The Ruhr was the heart of German industry and prosperity. It was also the workshop of German aggression in the two World Wars of and , and was thus a vital target area for Allied bombers.

The vast railway marshalling yards at Hamm, the steel works at Essen, and the many munitions plants were per- sistently attacked. The Dortmund-Ems Canal was put out of action and the dams which provided power for many of the factories were smashed. The Ruhr was not only the energiser of German economy. Hei coal was used by France and Switzer- land, Belgium and Holland.

Her manu- factured goods were sent, not only to German towns and cities, but to all parts of Central Europe. It is a village of wood- carvers and a winter spoits centre, but it is beat known o'- its Passion Plays These began in and were held regularly from onwards, at ten year intervals.

The performers in the - Passion Plays are all natives of the village. Special efforts have been made by us to restore the capacity of the important Ruhr coal mines. This is the region of the Saxon coalfield whence came the fuel for smelting the ores of the Harz Mountains farther north. Industry is centred in the towns of Chemnitz and Zwickau which produce cot m and woollen goods, hosiery, and heavy railway machinery.

North of the coalfield is Leipzig, whose trade fairs have been held annually for centuries, and which is famous for its printing and book-binding. The Elbe flows on through rich farmland which gives, among other crops, sugar-beet for the refineries of Magdeburg and other towns. Much of the lower Elbe is now in the nature of a frontier, for it divides the British and Russian zones of Germany.

Hamburg, where it pours its swift-moving stream into the North Sea, was once a great Hansa port and second city of Germany, whose waterfront reached for ten miles along the banks of the river and whose shipyards built some of the world's finest liners. Hamburg is now in ruins, only by some freak of fortune have some sections near the Alster been spared destruction. Westwards across the heaths and fenlands of the North German Plain is yet more ruin — Han- over, a great city of which more than a third has been completely devastated : Bremen, the twin of Hamburg in mari- time importance and commercial greatness, a mere skeleton of a seaport : Minden, Osnabruck, each one a shat- tered signpost on the road of the last battles.

Beautiful Bavaria It is a relief to turn from the gaunt ruins of the North German Plain to those parts of Germany which are still beautiful : to go southwards towards the romantic Black Forest, the towering Bavarian Alps, and the rocky legended Harz. But even in southern Germany, war has blazed its fiery trail.

Bavarian Nuremberg, the town of Wagner's Masttirsingers and home of toymakers, a picture-book city of medieval houses, ancient towers and lofty walls, was heavily bombed because of the war industries which had been built upon its outskirts.

But the Bavarian farmlands with their quaint villages of chalet-type honsi s, each with its ornately carved Maibaum Maypole , are unchanged, as are the snow-capped peaks of the Bavarian Alps. Ludwig was the friend and patron of Richard Wagner, and at Nciischwanstein, per- haps the most incredible of his castles, the walls are covered with murals portraying scenes from Wagnerian opera. Not far away is Obetammer- gau, the small village which has become world-famous for its Passion Play.

More scenic beauties are to be found in the Harz Mountains which protrude in a natural bastion into the plains of northern Tier many about midway between Cologne and Berlin. The highest mountain of the range is the 3,4iq feet high Brocken, a sinister barren peak, often hidden by clouds, which legend says is the meeting place of witches and warlocks on Walpurgis Night April 30th.

More grim in its associations is the town of Nordhausen on the southern side of the range. Here, at the end of the war, was discovered a vast underground factory, timnelled out of the mountain side, where the most recent weapons of an terror, the V2 rockets, were assembled. Berlin Berlin, the capital of Germany, was the largest city of Germany and the fourth largest in the world.

It stands on a plain astride the river Spiee. Originally the capital of Prussia, Berlin became the German capital when the different States were united in To-day, Berlin is a capital without a nation. Its ruins are as extensive as those of any Gciman city, for there was severe fighting wathin the city before it surrendered on May 2nd, , to the Russian forces undei Marshal Zhuk off. This region, the by Johann Strauss although its waters ancient ciustblock of the Black Forest, are green or grey in colour, and not blue , is as richly endowed with romance and links western and eastern Europe.

From legend as either the Rhine or the Harz its source as far as the Iron Gate, the and challenges them with its own scenic Danube flows among western peoples wonders and historic places. Thence, to its This is a countiyside of forestiy and mouth of the Black Sea, the great river timber woikcrs, of clock and watch trnvels through lands whose Moslem makers, where can be seen the Schwarz- mosques and Moslem customs speak wald cottages with their i dched plainly of the East, or shingled roofs.

Before the war, A look at the map shows the Danube countless thousands visited the Black to be more than double the length of the Forest, some to take the cure at the Rhine ; the only river in Europe that famous health resorts of Baden-Baden, is longer is the Volga. To them it provides the best and cheapest means of transport for the things they sell and the goods they buy ; for them it is a natural highway because it can be navigated by barges and small steamers for miles of its length.

This view shows the Mana-Theresienstrassc with the majestic mountains in the background. TTie monument is the Pillar of St. Anne winch commemorates the defeat of the French and Bavarians in Tourists from all parts of the world come to Innsbruck, the chief town of the Austri. TKctuTof the railway station shows the famous " Nordkette peak ,n he background. An old legend tells us how Satan would not let the builders finish the bridge until they promised him the souls of the first three living beings who should cross it, and how the master builder foiled the Evil One by semdiug across the newly- completed bridge a dog, a cock and a her!

These loose-knit subject peoples broke away when the Germanic Powers were defeated in Stephen , became separate and independent. The Treaty of Versailles and the demands of her neighbours took from defeated Austria further slices of her territory, leaving the once proud heart of Empire a small inland State. Now Austria is free again, though as a defeated state she is still subject to Allied contiol, and is as much a bridge between east and west as is the mighty Danube on whose banks her once gay capital of Vienna stands.

Look at the map and see how far Vienna is from Constantinople and it become'S hard to realise that a Turkish army once encamped round the walls of the old Imperial city. Most of us think of Vienna as the city of song, as the home of tuneful operettas and lilting Strauss waltzes. Ihese h«ive all felt the fiery blast of war, for Hitler who once boasted that h ' would make Vienna one of the greatest of world cities only brought her ruin.

But much that made her famous still remains. In each block working men can live comfortably with their families, with the advantage of a big central kitchen, a line playground, a kindergarten for the boys and girls, a central laundry where the family washing can be done, and electric light and heat for all purposes. Austria is open to tourists again. Czechoslovakia and its Industries The Danube flows on to Bratislava, the river-port of Czechoslovakia, whose massive castle overtopping the town was built to guard it in the old days when the Danube valley was infested by pirates Bratislava is at the meet- ing place of three frontiers and is the port for the coal and metals, glass and sugar of Czechoslovakia, for the timber and salt of Austria, and for the grain, cattle and sheep of Hungary.

Czechoslovakia, the land of the Czech peoples of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and of the Slovak people of Slovakia, is the most densely populated of the Danube countries. Other famous Czech towns are Pilscn, noted for its brew- eries Zlin, which has the largest shoe factory in Europe and Budweiss, where lead pencils arc made At Pilsen, too, were the great Skoda munitions factories which rivalled Krupps at Essen for their output of war material To-day, the Skoda plant turns out railway engines, cars, and agricultural machinery Besides these great manufacturing towns, Czecho- slovakia has a thnvuig timber industry, productive farmlands, and rich mines in Bohemia and Moravia Hungary of the Great Plains On flows the Danube, a highway for great timber rafts from the now- distant Black Forest each with its little hut for the raftsmen, and for tugs towing empty oil barges back to Rumania for another load.

The banks aie lined by floating grain-mills, whose huge wheels are worked by the rushing current that here has a speed of about five miles an hour This land through which the nver courses is the Littk Hungarian Plain. Presently, the rivtr reaches Budajiest, the Hungarian capital that is really two cities m ont. On the high western bank of the iiver is the old city of Buda, nestling lound its castle On the eastern bank is the newer city of Pest built upon lower ground and joined to Buda by five bridge s To day this once-fine capital IS in the same sorry plight as many anothei Continental city Her build- ings and houses an ugly scars of war.

Great lit ids of long-horned cattle and sheep roam over these wide natural grasslands, where peasants dressed in wide linen trousers, loose shirts, and wonderfully embroi- dered sleeveless jackets watch their grazing animals from beneath ide brimmed hats, leaning on their long staffs.

In winter they wear thick sheep-skin coats ; in summer, on high days and holidays, they fling over their shoulders, like capes, magnificently embroidered overcoats whose sleeves they never use. Here and there in the Hungarian plains are wells from which water foi the sheep and cattle is diawn by cl bucket from a gieat polt slung across 1 stout upright. In the villages of white-walled, heavily thatched houses, richly adorned headdresses and costumes are worn on holidays by the women, some of whom wt ai as many as a dozen sluts at a time, the whole standing out stiffly m a wide circle around their white stockings.

The Balkan Pensinula is the home of a number of widely-different peoples some of whom, such as the Greeks, settled here in early times, while others, such as the Turks, came to the Balkans in the fifteenth centuiy as invaders. The mixtuie of peoples in the Peninsula has provoked problems of national boundaries and racial aspirations which still remain unsettled.

Yugoslavia, once a kingdom but now a republic, is composed of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes who formerly were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They are hardy people living in lands that are themselves hard and almost inhos- pitable, except in the fertile northern plain that is part of the Danube basin.

For although there are prosperous farmlands in the northern plains of Croatia and Slavonia, whose chief town is Zagreb on the river Sava, the western mountains of the Karst region are barren and rugged with upland pastures that give a precarious living to sheep and shepherds. The chief town of this region is Cctinje, formerly capital of Montenegro, wheie can still be seen the palace of the kings of the old Montenegro. From Belgrade the Danube, wide and strong, plunges through the fortified defile of the Iron Gate where passage for river craft is made possible only by the walled channels that have been constructed in the bed of the stream.

Austerlitz is a township from which the battle was named. Prague is a Bohemian city and the capital of Czechoslovakia. Instead of its ancient monu- ments and serried rows of houses, this picture shows a view in springtime on. The building seen through this sea of fruit blossom is the Church of St. Mary, and the photograph was taken in the grounds of Castle Hraddlany.

In the old days boats had to be dragged by main force by gangs of men, the vessels hugging the shore as closely as they dared. In ,. The gorge itself is shut in by high rugged walls of rock on which, at one point, there is a deeply- cut inscription in Latin recording the passage of the armies of the Emperor Trajan through this stupendous cleft — a passage made by building great plat- forms supported by wooden beams sunk in the rock face above the swirling flood.

Bulgaria is a land of farmers whose richest lands lie between ihe Balkan Mountains and the forested crustblock of the Rhodope in the plain of Rumelia. But though they are a peasant people, the Bulgars were once strong enough You have only to see the elal orate national dress worn by Hungarian peasants to realise bow skilled with the needle their womenfolk are. These peasant women have brought some of their work to market in Budapest, the Hungarian capital, where visitors and townspeople are glad to buy such beautiful embroidery.

Standing athwart the Tiu-kish road of western conquest, however, they became a subject people and had Turkish over- lords until the nineteenth century. To this day there is abundant evidence of the long period of Turkish rule, even from the waters of the frontier river whence can be seen the slender minarets of Mohammedan mosques which show many of the Bulgars to be Moslems.

Bulgaria stands on the road of migration and conquest. The routes from Constantinople to Central Furope pass over her plains. That is why Sofia, the capital, stands where it does. Sofia's history is that of a fortress town built to dominate the Dragoman Pass leading from old Serbia into Bulgaria and to command the way from the Danube to the Aegean Sea.

Bulgaria is a poor country. Her most fertile lands are along the upper Striema and Tunja, both tributaries of the Maritza which flows through the plain of Rumelia. In May and June, roses are picked every day in the early morning and sent off by the sackful to be distilled, ox-carts and lorries being used for this purpose.

The farmhouses are strongly built and furnished in a quiet, orderly simplicity that is very pleasing, as we see alxjve. A typical market scene at a small town in Hungary, where the produce of the countryside is displayed to likely buyers.

Like most inland countries. Comparatively few Hungarians ever set eyes on the sea, for no part of their country has a coiistlme. The dress of the women is typical of the country. Peasant Songs and Dances From Czechoslovakia onwards our journey from the Black Forest to the Black Sea has been through lands of peasant peoples where we have seen beautifully worked national costumes and heard gypsy music that strikes our western ears quite strangely. No one can say how old the hora is ; it IS a dance whose beginnings are lost in antiquity and it is intended to be danced on what we would call the village green Everyone joins in, form- ing themselves up in a circle, with the musicians in the middle The songs we should hear, too, in the homes of these peasant people w'ould remind us of the great heroes of the past and tell by woid and note of the happiness and sadness of days gone by The SuHna Delta But now we have almost reached the end of our long journey down the great river Danube, and its source — the Donau-Quelle at the small town of Donaueschingen — is far behind us After Galatz the Danube turns east again, fanning out into the wide marshes of the Sulina delta.

For this reason Russia is usually referred to as the U b S R. It is a story of the expansion of a central power across the greatest plain in the old world which offers few obstacles to such domination. So determined was he that his people should shake off their old barbarism that he ordered his nobles to shave off their beards and made them wear the western dress of the time. The Russian people, however, remained oppressed and the enlightened ideas which the writers of the French Revolution spread through cultured Europe reached Russia only through secret societies whose members went in constant fear of their lives and liberties.

So backward was Imperial Russia that serfdom was not abolished until i86i. Even such long overdue reforms did little to improve the condition of the people. Tsar Alexander the Third, an extreme autocrat, virtually ruled through his secret police sending thou- sa? When the Great War came in IQ14, Russia was still among the most back- ward of European Powers, Her great natural wealth was undeveloped, her farming was primitive, her roads and railways out of date.

Apart from the cultured and rich-living ruling classes, her people were poor and illiterate. Only thirty per cent of her population could read and write. Most Russians were pitifully poor peasants, but there were also, in the comparatively few manufacturing towns, an increasing number of industrial workers whose conditions were as bad, if not worse, than those of the peasants. There had already been one revolt against the Tsar in October , which had induced the Tsar to give Russia a Duma or parliament.

But the Duma did not solve the Empire's troubles. Its power was rigorously limited and it was safely controlled by the nobility who were as autocratic as their Tsar. For Russia, the war of was a titanic conflict for which she could not have been worse equipped. Brave though her soldiers were, they had not the supply system or the industrial power which any country needs to make war.

Defeat followed defeat, and her soldiers, lacking arms and equipment, began to desert. At home, conditions were chaotic. Food was short and there were bread riots, strikes, and demonstrations. In , Tsar Nicholas the Second abdicated and a Provisional Government was formed of statesmen who had led the opposition in the Duma.

The Revolutionary Soviets Already, in various parts of Russia, revolutionary Soviets Councils had sprung up : among the peasants, among the industrial workers and among the soldiers. All these had sent delegates to a Congress of Soviets at Moscow which had helped to organise the strikes and demonstrations leading to the abdication of the Tsar. Lenin, returned from exile where his revolutionary ideas had driven him, gained the leadership of this Congress with his Bolshevik party and compelled the Provisional Government to surrender power to the Soviets.

There were two years of bitter civil war before the Bolsheviks had defeated the armies of the counter-revolution and could set about organising Russia in the system we now know as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. After the civil war, Russia had to rebuild a shattered land whose economy and administration were in ruins. Fin- land and Poland, countries which broke loose from Russia after iht war of The million people of the U.

Some are fisherfolk and hunters, and depend on dogs more than reindeer for hauling their sledges, and upon the creatures of the sea and the shore for their food and clothing Many of these primitive ptopks worship the spirits of earth and air, fire and water, and obey the wishes of their shamans; these, like the witch- doctors of many African tribes, practise rude magic that easily deceives these simple savage folk, who are subjects of the USSR just as much as highly- culturcd Russians, whose art, literature and scientific discoveries have placed them in the forefront of modern progress In letent years much has been done to educate these people and settle them in villages Like the Russian peasants, many of whom were uneducated years ago, these tribes of the Arctic shorelands have the benefit of State education.

In the Siberian or Asiatic part of this great Russian forest, much lumber- ing is carried on, although it is very difficult to get the timber away to places where it can be sold. Those mighty rivers — Ob, Yenesei and Lena — wide and deep though they may be, are of very little use because they flow to the Arctic Ocean and have their mouths sealed by ice for nearly ten months in the year.

There is to the south of the forests the great railway known as the T. Trans-Siberian Railway , whose steel rails run in an unbroken line from Moscow in Europe to the shores of the Pacific ; but carriage of timber all that way by rail is an expensive business. The people are few in number. They catch the fur-bearing animals in the forest, and sell their furs to Russian traders who send pelts by boat, by sledge, by road and later by rail to the great fur markets of Irbit in the Ural country, and of Gorki on the Volga, in the heart of European Russia.

Many of these forest people live by the rivers and catch enormous quantities of fish which they store for use during the long, hard winter. This is the Dynamo Underground Station, and at first sight it seems more like some national monument or palace. Ukraine The richest land of all the farm- ing country of European Russia is Ukraine, where wheat and maize, tobacco and fruits, sugar beet and other crops are raised. The farmlands of the eastern Ukraine are scout ged each year by the Sukoveyi, dry winds that blow from the Caspian and from Central Asia.

In Ukraine are many large towns, the finest of which is the ancient city of Kiev, famous for its churches and fine buildings and capital of Ukraine. A great coal-field stretches along the northein shoie of the Black Sea, where Kl. In Western Siberia farms are worked by Russian peasants who have settled in Siberia much as people from our land have settled in Canada. But where British colonists had to cross thousands of miles of ocean and continent to reach their new home in Canada, these Russian settlers only had the long rail journey from the European parts of Russia.

The Steppe Nomada As one goes south from -the grain- lands and the dairy farms of Western Siberia the land grows drier and drier, and the grass-lands become the steppes on which roaming tribes of herdsmen live in their felt " 5mrts '' or tents, moving from place to place with the seasons in search of pasture for their sheep, horses and camels. The Kirghiz and the Kalmucks are the best known of these nomads.

They are very fine horsemen, and live almost entirely on what they get from their flocks and herds. Such dwellings can be set up or taken down by the womenfolk in an hour or so, and packed on the backs of camels or horses leady for the next journey in search of fresh pastures. Many of these people, however, are now settled in villages as farmers, and a family will have its own considerable holding The Desert and the Town Farther south the Siberian steppes gradually change to the dry desert country of Russian Turkestan, where people are desert men who keep sheep and camels, and wear tall sheepskin hats and thick sheepskin coats, 01 dwellers in the oasis cities, or in the towns by the rivers that flow down from the high mountains of the heart of Asia.

Although the Russians have long ago built railways to link Turkestan with Moscow, the chief way of getting about in this dry land is by camel- caravan or on horseback. The cities — Bokhara, Khiva, Samarkand and Tashkent, for examples — are older than London and Paris ; they are vivid with the strange life of the East ; in their bazaars are spoken all the languages of Asia, and above their mazes of narrow streets of flat-roofed houses of sun-dried brick, rise the great domes and the slender minarets of many mosques.

Yet even here great modem industries have sprung up. Here, for example, is the old east gate of the Dutch city of Delft, whose name is still linked with fine pottery. High on its crag overlooking the river Meuse is the citadel which, like the thirteenth-century church right , received damage during the Second World War Photo: E. Of all European countries, France is nearest to us and here we see the Champs Elysees, one of the most famous avenues in her capital on the river Seine.

Photo: Dr, M. Hurlimann The Rhone is a great French river on whose banks rises many an ancient town. Here we arc looking down from the walls of Avignon to the ruined bridge of St. On the bridge is a tiny chapel. On top of the fluted fountain in the main square at Budejovice, in Czecho- column is a representation of Moses holding the Slovakia.

Angelo PA»lo: E,N. Dressed in as the Dolomites, in the Trentino region ot Italy peasant finen this young man performs the Shep- Their ruggedness and harshrx ss typical of this herd's Crook dance particular range. Kazakhstan is famous for its cattle and sheep, and also has extremely rich mineral deposits. Markov, The Gorki Dairy is one of several in Moscow supplying the Russian capital with milk products of various kinds. In this picture we see the automatic process used for pasteurising milk.

Moscow also important electrical engineering and machine-tool factories. R Two Great Cities of U. Moscow, the capital of all Russia, is a very ancient city standing on the banks of the Moskva, as it has done since its foundation in the twelfth cen- tury or even before that. It is to-day one of the most up-to-date places in the world, drawing its water from the largest European river, the Volga , having direct waterways to the White Sea, the Baltic and the Caspian, and an underground railway whose stations are finished with glistening marble slabs on the walls.

If it owns no actual skyscrapers, it has at least enormous and handsome blocks of flats in which live many scores of families paying rent fixed according to income and enjoying such new services as the natural gas supply piped to Moscow from the biaratov oilfields miles away.

The Kremlin The most famous place in Moscow is the Kremlin, enclosed in its great wall with nineteen green-tiled towers and containing many palaces and churches. Once upon a time it was a mighty fortress as well as the home of emperors and archbishops, but now we find there most of the offices of the Soviet Govern- ini'iit Ht'iJ' the lic. Moscow is not only the fiist city of the U S. In the region round the capital are othtr industrial towiis--Kybinsk, Gorki, Vladimir, I'lila and Kaluga whose working populations are fed fiom neighbouring mixed fanning areas.

After Peter the Great Leningrad, once known as St. Peters- burg, after Peter the Great, and then as Petrograd, was given its present name in honoured memory of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin , founder of the Soviet tJnion and its first President.

From to it was Russia's capital and now ranks as the second city. Leningrad stands on the River Neva, which is spanned by many bridges and broken into channels, though the stream is icebound from November to April. Hep we can find a State university. Modern Russian Industry In Tsarist Russia, there were few factories to supply the needs of this vast country and some of the most striking developments in Russia since the Revolution have been in industry and manufacture.

There were great engineering achievements — the Moscow under- ground railway and the vast dam and hydro-electric station on the Dnieper which was destroyed by the Germans but has now been rebuilt. Magnitogorsk and Sverdlovsk were developed as a result of the Second Five Year Plan which began the move of Soviet heavy industry from the west to behind the low range of the Urals.

This process was speeded up when Germany invaded Russia in and is still going on. In the Alma Ata region, and in eastern Siberia at Komsomolsk, Magadan and Khabaravsk, mining centres for ore containing uranium are being developed.

Expansion is also taking place in the older industrial region of the Volga round the towns of Gorki, Kuibishev, Saratov and Stalingrad. Not far from Kuibishev, a new hydro-electric station is to be built which will surpass that of the Dnieper, and much is to be done to improve the navigation upon the Volga and its canal and river links with the Baltic and the Arctic.

Farming in Modern Russia A basic principle of the Soviet system is that the main resources such as minerals, foodstuffs and raw materials; are owned and operated by the State and not by individuals. Thus the land is the property of the State and is farmed under Collective and State systems. The Collective Farms [kolkhozes are groupings of former smallholdings into one unit sufficiently large to allow the use of labour-saving machinery and scientifically prepared fertilisers and seeds supplied by the State.

The farm land, machinery, implements and horses, the bams, stables, and farm- buildings are for collective use ; but the farmworkers' houses, domestic animals such as pigs, and their personal property remain their own. Moreover, each farmworker has a small plot of land where he may grow vegetables or what he pleases for his family. If he wants to, he may own one or two cows. Each Collective Farm is managed by a board elected by the farmworkers.

The workers are formed into brigades and teams, each team having a particular job to do at a particular time of the year. Competitions are held between brigades and teams with prizes for the best. Wliat sort of homes have Collective Farmworkers? Trim cottages mostly, each with its radio set.

Amusement is provided in the communal buildings of the farm which will include a theatre or entertainment hall. Children on the farms have to attend school when they are eight years old, and before that they will almost certainly be put in kindergartens or creches, for their mothers have to work as hard on the farms as their fathers. The State Farms Sovkhozes are very large indeed. These immelnse farms are usually devoted to specialist pur- poses such as wheat-growmg, vine- growing, tea-planting, or ejeperiment farming and are limited in number.

These women, for example, arc helping in building pari of a residential estate for w'orkers at the Minsk motor-car factory in Byelorussia. This system of trying to get everyone interested in the plan for their work is applied also to industry. Thus the economic plans for the whole of the Soviet Union are discussed in farm and factory before their final draft is presented to the chief governing organ, the Council of People's Commissars.

Apart from the farms and factories, every village, town, city, district and region has its own soviet or form of local government. In each individual republic there is a supreme soviet which rules that republic, with guid- ance and direction from Moscow's Supreme Soviet of the U. Because of the war, the Soviet Union has had an enormous amount of re- building to do, and reconsirukzija. Voro- shilovgrad is in the Ukraine. But new houses and new homes are rising, not only at such war damaged cities as Stalingrad but in unharmed places like Tashkent.

Flats are most common in the towns and cities, and the rent or charge made for a flat is based upon what one earns. Flats, moreover, are allotted for cer- tain groups of people. For example, a man employed at a steel works would live in the block of flats or housing district allotted to the workers at that steel plant.

This system operates, too, when it comes to holidays which will be spent at a rest centre allotted to the factory or plant where one works. We in Britain would probably dislike never being able to escape from our work, but the Russians think this continual as- sociation a splendid idea. They are peoples of the great plain, pieoples who have been hurrying frantically to catch up with human progress. They have vivid memories of past invasions, of civil war when the whole world seemed against them, and of their own despe- rate struggles to build a system they had whole-heartedly adopted out of the disruption and chaos that was left when the Revolution was won.

They are bound, moreover, to the doctrines which Lenin proclaimed and in which they themselves have been reared and educated. These things must be remembered when we read or speak of the U. Internal dissen- sions made her weak and she fell a victim to the ambitions of her neigh- bours — Russia, Austria, and Prussia, who on three occasions, in , in , and in , helped themselves U 'arge portions of Poland, despite the gallant resistance of the great Polish patriot Kosciuszko.

Kosciuszko was too far-sighted a man to be deceived by the Grand Duchy of Warsaw which Napoleon subsequently created He knew that the French Emiieror merely wanted another rer. This picture shows us the library of a modern school in W arsaw. Notice that some of the Polish boys favour much more severe haircuts than we have in Britain.

Another great patriot, Paderewski, worked tirelessly to rouse pmblic sympathy, particularly in America where his friendship with President Wilson served the Polish cause well. When war came again in , Poland was invaded from both east and west and divided between Russia and Nazi Germany. The Polish State, it was declared, had ceased to exist. A large part of her former eastern territories remained in Russian hands. At the end of the war, Warsaw, her capital, mercilessly bombed by the Germans and scene of a gallant rising against the Nazis, was a city of ruins.

The whole country had been a vast battlefield. The ruins of Warsaw are now being cleared and the Polish capital is being rebuilt on the site it has occupied since at the strategic crossing of the Vistula where the routes from the North German Plain join with those from Russia. Not only are sweeping plans for new homes, shops, and government buildings taking shape ; there is a new road system which wasplanned to link the east and west of the city by a new bridge across the river and a tunnel under the centre of the.

The Vistula runs through the Kielce plateau which is an FN i. The mines were being worked so long ago as the eleventh century and contain wonderful rooms and statuary carved out of the salt. The picture shows the waiting and refreshment rooms in the underground railway station. Westwards from the river, at Lodz, a big textile industry using local flax and imported cotton is being again set up.

But Poland's greatest industrial wealth will be found in her newly acquired western terri- tories from which most of the Cierman population has now gone and where she plans to settle Poles from the are;ts she has lost to Russia. Here, on the banks of the Oder, is a vast industrial region built around the Silesian coalfield with Wroclaw Breslau , the Silesian capital and an important textile centre, as its largest city.

The Wonders of Wieliczka One of the most interesting places of modem Poland is Wieliczka, a town nine miles south-east of the iron and steel centre of Cracow, which has the most remarkable salt mines in the world These mines were being worked so long ago as the eleventh century and run for miles underground at seven different levels.

They are a maze of corridors, rooms and halls, many of which are adorned with statuary and carvings in the natural rock-salt. There are actually two chapels in the mine whose altars and ornaments have, like the chapels themselves, been hewn from the rock-salt. The Poles aie working hard to increase the production of their now nationalised key industries. No less important are their efforts to improve agriculture.

Polish farmlands were devastated by the war and recovery has been made more difficult by the floods and exceptionally cruel winter of Poland, once one of the chief European countries to export farm produce, has had until recently to import foodstuffs from the U.

Before the war, Poland s outlets to the Baltic were limited to the Polish Corridor and Gydnia, a port which the Poles built not far from Gdansk Danzig. Besides these, there is the port of Kolobrzeg for- merly known as Kolberg and the port of Elblag which used to be called Elbing. No- tice how the change of national frontiers has brought about a change in the names of many places.

Here we see one ol the entrances to St. Tliis great sea is as long from end to end as the North Atlantic is wide. It is very deep, and its waters are very salt. The long peninsula of Italy, with the triangular island of Sicily at its toe, divides the Mediterranean into two great basins. The shores of Tunisia in Africa are not very far from those of Sicily, and commanding the gap be- tween are the Maltese Islands, which belong to the British Commonwealth.

Betiveen Europe and Africa Around the western basin of the Mediterranean lie the most important countries ; Spain, France and Italy have shorelands there, and so have the lands of the French Union in Northern Africa — Tunisia, Algeria and adjacent Morocco. The eastern basin has not such important shorelands as the western basin.

On the right of the picture is the Calhedral seen across the Kiver p,rmes, paiflj thiough the arch of a bridge. Salamanra was a place of consjdf ranlc impuitancc in the times before the coming of Jesus 'hnst. You will know ai the beautiful Balearic Isles, set like gems in the blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea to the east of Spain.

The pyramids and temples of Egypt, the ruins of Carthage near Tunis, the Acropolis and the remains of other glorious buildings of ancient Greece, the old Forum at Rome, the Roman amphitheatres and aqueducts of Southern France and Spain, and the beautiful Moorish palace of Alhambra at Granada, all remind us of the rise and fall of the mighty empires of the ancient world, and make a voyage through the Mediterranean a never-to-be-forgotten experience.

The Peninsula is the land of Spain and Portugal, both formerly great sea powers from whose ports sailed intrepid disc o verers such as Diaz, Columbus, Da Gama, Balboa, Magellan and Orellana, to reveal to the world the riches of the Americas and to build great empires for their home- lands.

Of these empires little or nothing remains save the Spanish and Portu- guese tongues, manners and customs which still rule the life of Latin America. The Catalan people speak a tongue of their own and have more than once revolted in attempts to win independence.

Andalusia is a true Medi- terranean land with hot dry summers and mild winters. Here are the orange groves of Seville, the vines of Jerez de la Frontera from which sherry takes its name, the tanneries of Cdrdoba, and the green crops, bordering the Guadal- quivir, watered by a maze of irrigation channels. From the early seventh century until , the Moors held the greater part of Spain and it was their industry that made these southern provinces so fruitful.

They showed the Spaniaids how to water their parched lands, and to rear the luxuriant crops of grapes, oranges, mulberries, sugar-cane and even rice that can be seen in southern Spain ; and the Moors left behind them stately palaces and towns whose beau- WiU F. It is ten miles long and is the most impor- tant Roman relic in Spain.

Most famous of these is Alhambra at Granada, the ancient Moorish capital in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. The iron ore of the Cantabrian Moun- tains, in the north, is shipped from Bilbao and Santander, although the coalfield near Oviedo, with its port of Gijon, uses Cantabrian iron in local iron and steel works ; the iron ore of the Sierra Nevada, the highest range in the peninsula, is shipped from Malaga, which is a Mediterranean port bettei known for its rich wines, its raisins and its 'oranges.

The well-known copper- mines of Rio Tinto, the lead and silver-mines of Linares, and the quick- silver-mines of Almaden all he near the southern edges of this old tableland. Spanish Ports The ports of Malaga, Almeria, Alicante and Valencia are the fruit- ports which send us heavy cargoes of oranges and lemons, almonds and raisins, pomegranates and grapes for our Christmas tables. At Valencia are big silk-mills to which the silk from millions of cocoons spun by Spanish silkworms is sent, and from fnillions of others in Japan, China ai d Asia Minor, too.

The beautiful Balearic Isles, renowned for their ancient towns, their lovely flowers, and the skill of their potters, are popular winter holiday resorts. The largest is Majorca, with its capital at Palma.

Vincent, Prince Henry the Navigator directed the Portuguese discoveries of the fifteenth century. Portugal is also known to us in history EN i. I he picture shows Pena Palace, built in the Moorish style in King Manoel 11 spent his last days here before his abdication in Portugal is a land of corkwoods and vineyards watered by two great r 'crs, the Tagus and the Douro that tumble down canyons and deep valleys from the Spanish Meseta to cross the Portu- guese lowlands to the sea, the Douro at Oporto, and the Tagus at Lisbon.

Oporto is world-renowned for the ship- ments of wine which come from its outport of LeixOes, and the most famous of her vineyards are in the Pais de Vinho wine counti y on the slopes of the lower Douro valley. As in all wine- growing regions, vintage time is the most exciting season of the year.

From brows to feet the sturdy peasants are steeped in ilie stains of the grape, and when the giapes have been gathered and the wine presses are running with the rich new juice there is general rejoicing and merrymaking. Cork oak grows mainly in the hill country of eastern Portugal. Not until the trees are over fifteen years old are they stripped for the first time. Their finest parts of the world. The people of the islands the airwa5rs of the world.

Lisbon live chiefly by growing tomatoes and airport is a meeting place for air liners bananas for export, and freight planes from Eui ope, Africa Madeira, like the Canaries, is a and the Americas. Funchal, its chief town, is the Both Spain and Portugal have their centre of the famous wine industry and outposts in the Atlantic, Spain in the here yon can ride about the cobbled Said to have existed in Roman times, this famous bridge over the River Arno, was rebuilt by Taddeo Gaddt in Since the days of the Medici, the bridge has been flanked with goldsmiths' shops and on it IS a bust of Benvenuto Cellini, the most famous Florentine of that trade.

Florence took a leading part in the Renaissance that was, perhaps, Italy's finest hour. Toytof In the city of Pisa, in Italy, there lowers upwards a builaing that is of outstanding interest even in a country possessed of so much that is wonderful n architecture The Campanile, or Leaning Tower of Pisa, is feet high. Owing, it is thought to a sinking of the ground on the south side, the tower is now 16 J feet out of the perpendicular, but yet stands firm.

Siena is an ancient Italian city with many Assisi is another Italian town, and the one beautiful buildings. Here is the interior in which St. Francis was born. The church of the Cathedral, fashioned largely in above forms part of the great Franciscan marble of different colours.

Photos' If. Mansells St. Francis of Assisi was one of the world's gn-nt missionaries and was especially famous for his love of dumb animus. Here we see the cr3rpt ui the church at Assisi, where the remains of the Saint were laid to rest. Tlie architecture of the groined and vaulted roof with its rich orna- mentation IS little short of marvellous. The Azores might be called a half- way house of the Atlantic, although the islands are much nearer Europe than they are to the Americas.

The Azores have suddenly gained new importance as a link in the airways of the world. Santa Maria, an island of the group, is an important refuelling point on the trans- Atlantic air route. These are lands of the vine and the olive, of oranges and lemons, of wonderful flowers and gorgeous scenery. Both the lower Rtione Valley and the Riviera are favourite haunts of the tourists. The Rhone Valley has fine old Roman remains, such as those at Niines and Arles, and, around its delta, is the home of the gardiens de la Camargue.

The Riviera is favoured by tourists because of its lovely scenery and its mild winter climate. Cannes, Nice, Monte Carlo and Mentone, are only four of the many pleasant places with which this mag ic strip betweep the mountaina; and the sea is stuped. The Riviera extends eastward into Italy to the great seaport of A F.

This picture shows the North Transept of the church of the monastery and right the screen and entrance to the Choir. Architects from Italy, France, and Germany worked on tins mastei- piece which was not completed until Ihere are more than 4, marble statues upon the I oof w'hich i. Genoa, where Christopher Columbus was born, and where in ordinary times you will see large ships from all parts of the world.

Italy Italy is one of the youngest, yet one of the oldest, of European countries : young because she did not win unity and independence until ; old because her towns were once the very heart of the Roman Empire whose influence remains to-day in lands where Roman legions marched. Italy, too, was the birth country of the Renaissance, the Revival of Learning, that great resurgence of culture and the arts, thought and literature that revivified the western world. The wonders and beauties of those times have made Italy a land of pilgrimage for lovers of art and enlightenment.

Her ancient ruins, beautiful palaces and churches, and her unique art treasures are the heritage, not only of Italy, but of civilisation itself. Italian love of the things of art and intellect found expression in every town and city, each wishing to surpass the others in the splendour of its churches, the beauty of its paintings, or the grace of its statues.

The Renaissance was, perhaps, Italy's finest hour. But his seed did not bear fruit until the nineteenth century which was an age of great Italian patriots — Victor Emmanuel, the brave King of Piedmont and Sardinia : Cavour, his able Prime Minister : Mazzini, whose writings roused Italy against foreign domination : and Gari- baldi, the valiant soldier of fortune. These leaders, aided by Emperor Napoleon the Third of France and public opinion in the western world, drove out the Austrians and the Bourbon King of Naples and welded the peninsula into a unified Kingdom of Italy.

To-day Italy is a republic, not struggling to be great in the false sense that Hitler and Mussolini gave the word, but striving to free herself from the harsh heritage of war and to solve what has always been a problem for her over populated land — the problem of daily food, shelter and clothing for her forty millions of people. Not all of Italy is truly Mediter- ranean.

Mediterranean Italy is Peninsular Italy and its shorelands. North of the Lombardy Plain is Alpine Italy, a land of lovely lakes,. As the picture shows, these are still used despite the competition of motor launches. Flanked by magnificent palaces and stately churches, the Grand Canal is one of the most beautiful sights in Europe, llie picture shows the famous Rialto bridge, built between and In Rome, too, are the papal palace of the Vatican and the great Cathedral of Saint Peter, which remind all who come that this city is the home of the head of the Roman Catholic Church throughout the world.

Beautiful Naples Farther south is the plain of Naples and one of the world's most beautiful cities on its lovely bay, with the volcano of Vesuvius as a strange and wonderful background behind a lich and fertile land of orange and lemon groves, vineyards and flowers. This is the land of macaroni, made from the paste of fine wheat giown in the plain of Naples, or in that of Apulia on the other side of the Apennines.

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